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Flashcards in Chapter 13 Respiratory Deck (41)
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What are the functions of the respiratory system

Functions to move oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the body . Called breathing or ventilation

External respiration
Gas exchange between the alveoli and the capillaries

Oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported between the lungs and the body

Cellular respiration
Exchange of gases at the cellular level is internal respiration



Upper Respiratory Tract
Passageway for air
Made up of bone, hyaline cartilage, and adipose tissue that are covered with skin
Openings are the nostrils or external nares
Hairs in the nose assist in preventing debris and unwanted particles from entering.


Nasal Cavity

Upper Respiratory Tract
Space behind the nose and is divided into left and right compartments by the nasal septum
Nasal conchae
Three lobelike structures extend from each of the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
Lined with a mucous membrane that warms and moistens air as it passes through the nasal cavity
Lined with ciliated cells that form a pseudostratified membrane that has mucus secreting goblet cells
Trap particles and the cilia help move the particles toward the pharynx to be swallowed
Roof is called the cribiform plate
Olfactory nerves pass
Floor is formed by the hard and soft palates


Paranasal Sinuses

Upper Respiratory Tract
Maxillary and frontal sinuses -Paired structures
Sphenoid sinus -Unpaired , Ethmoid sinus
Lined by mucosa
Continues the process of warming and moistening the air
Act as resonant chambers
Affect the timber or quality of our voices
Lighten the weight of the skull



Upper Respiratory Tract
Organ of both the respiratory and the digestive systems
Three regions
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
During inspiration
Sir flows from the nasal or oral cavity into the pharynx
From the pharynx, air flows into the larynx



Upper Respiratory Tract
It sits superior to, and is continuous with, the trachea or windpipe
Control the flow of air during breathing
Protect the airway
Produce the sounds necessary for speech

Three cartilages
Largest is the thyroid cartilage
Epiglottic cartilage forms the framework of the epiglottis
Epiglottis is the flaplike structure that closes off the larynx during swallowing so that food and liquids do not enter the respiratory system
Cricoid cartilage forms most of the posterior wall of the larynx and a small part of the anterior wall.


What are the Upper vestibular folds

In Larynx
are known as the false vocal cords because they do not produce sound


Lower vestibular folds

In Larynx
form what are known as the true vocal cords which do produce sound



In Larynx
Vocal cords stretch between the thyroid and the cricoid cartilages and the opening between them is called the glottis.



Lower Respiratory Tract
Tubular organ - filters air
Five inches in length, made of about 20 C-shaped rings that posteriorly are open or incomplete
Extends from the larynx to the bronchi
Lined with mucosa containing goblet cells and ciliated cells
Move mucus up to the pharynx where it is swallowed and destroyed or excreted by the digestive system


Bronchial Tree

Lower Respiratory Tract - conducts air to the alveoli, filter the air
Distal end of the trachea branches to the left and right
First branches are called primary or main stem bronchi
Location of this bifurcation is known as the carina
Main stem bronchi are lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium and goblet cells

Airways contain cartilage plates rather than the rings found in the trachea.
Cartilage lessens as the airways become smaller until it disappears completely in the smallest passageways.
Smooth muscle becomes more abundant as the airways become smaller.
Allows for the expansion required during inhalation and exhalation



Lower Respiratory Tract
Cone-shaped organs
Right lung is larger than the left
Divided into three lobes, known as the right upper, middle, and lower lobes

Left lung is smaller
Heart is located on the left side of the thoracic cage
Has only two lobes—the upper and lower lobes

Alveolus is the functional unit of the lungs


External respiration

Red blood cells release carbon dioxide into the alveoli and alveoli release oxygen into the blood


Type I alveolus

in Lungs
More numerous, composed of a squamous or flat cell and is the actual site of gas exchange


Type II alveolus

Cuboidal in shape, and produces a chemical called surfactant that breaks the surface tension of the lungs allowing them to expand


Allergic Rhinitis

Seasonal such as hay fever
Antihistamines and decongestants



Inflammation of the membranes lining the sinuses of the skull
Acute or chronic in nature.
blockage of sinus openings, and the destruction of cilia that move mucus out of the sinuses


Upper Respiratory Infection

Common cold including pharyngitis
Caused by a family of viruses known as rhinovirus
Viruses become airborne through respiratory droplets
Also transmitted by contact with contaminated surfaces and objects
Self-limiting condition of approximately one week’s duration



Commonly called “the flu



dry cough and dry throat,Viruses; bacteria; polyp formation in the larynx; excessive talking, shouting,



Tubes of the bronchial tree become obstructed as a result of inflammation and hyperactivity of the smooth muscle in the airways
Difficulty breathing, tightness in the chest, wheezing, and coughing



Acute bronchitis
Caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold

Noninfectious cause of acute bronchitis
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, exposure to cigarette smoke, pollutants, and the fumes of household cleaners



Cancer that affects the pleura
Exposure to asbestos fibers in the workplace or home



Pleurisy is a condition in which the pleura become inflamed.
Viruses, pneumonia, autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis


Pleural Effusion

Either an overproduction of pleural fluid or an inadequate absorption of the fluid
Congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, tuberculosis, cancer, lupus, or rheumatoid arthritis
As the fluid builds in the pleural space, the lungs begin to compress, reducing the gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Infective processes may result in a pus buildup, which is known as empyema.
Thoracostomy,Oxygen may be administered


Tuberculosis (TB)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Contributing to widespread tuberculosis: HIV infection, crowded living conditions, poverty, drug-resistant bacterium, and long-term therapy
Almost 90 percent of primary cases of TB are asymptomatic.



Collapsed lung
Abdominal or thoracic surgery or because of pleural effusion
Injury to the ribs or trauma to the thorax,COPD or cystic fibrosis


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Group of lung disorders where obstruction limits airflow to the lungs
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most common types
Emphysema is most often caused by long-term smoking, but it can have a genetic basis that has no connection to smoking.

Barrel chest that describes the round barrel shape the chest develops over time
“Pink puffers” because their face often has reddish hue and they seem to “puff” when they breathe


Legionnaire’s Disease

Legionnaire bacillus
Fever, fatigue, anorexia, dyspnea, frequent coughing, chest pain, muscle aches, and headache
Complications may include hypotension, heart arrhythmias, respiratory and renal failure, as well as shock.
Erythromycin, antipyretics and respiratory therapy


Lung Cancer

Most often caused by cigarette smoking
Cough that worsens over time,



Lung diseases that result from years of exposure to different environmental or occupational types of dust
Anthracosis -Exposure to coal dusts
Asbestosis -Exposure to asbestos
Silicosis -Exposure to silica sand from sand blasting and ceramic manufacture

Fibrous tissue takes over healthy lung tissue, which destroys the alveoli and eventually the bronchioles



Pneumonitis is characterized by an inflammation of the lungs.
Oxygen and ventilator support may be required


Pulmonary Edema

Fluids fill the alveoli of the lungs making gas exchange difficult and even impossible.
Left heart failure, myocardial infarction,narcotics and heroin
Oxygen therapy, diuretics


Pulmonary Embolism

Artery is blocked by an embolus
Blood clot that has broken loose from a vein in the legs

Support stockings ,Surgery may be used to place a filter to prevent clots


Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

Hyaline membrane disease kills apparently healthy infants
At highest risk are newborns, especially “preemies,” to infants eight months of age
RDS is usually diagnosed directly after birth, when the infant’s breathing becomes rapid and shallow.
Oxygen therapy, the insertion of an endotracheal tube


Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Risk factors
Males, two weeks and six months of age, premature or low-birth-weight, sibling who died of SIDS, prenatally exposed to alcohol, cocaine, or heroin, and sleep on their stomachs
No treatment, but certain preventive measures can be taken
Positioning the infant on the back to sleep helps reduce risk



1.Nerve impulses travel on phrenic nerves to muscle fibers in the diaphragm, contracting them
2. As the dome-shaped diaphragm moves downward, the thoracic cavity expands
3. At the same time, the external intercostal muscles contract, raising the ribs and expanding the thoracic cavity further
4. The intra-alveolar pressure decreases
5. Atmospheric pressure, greater on the outside, forces air into the respiratory tract through the air passages
6. The lungs fill with air



1. The diaphragm and external respiratory muscles relax
2. Elastic tissues of the lungs and thoracic cage, stretched during inspiration, suddenly recoil, and surface tension collapses alveolar walls
3. Tissues recoiling around the lungs increase the intra-alveolar pressure
4. Air is squeezed out of the lungs


Factors That Control Breathing

Medulla oblongata controls the rhythm and the depth of breathing
Pons controls the rate of breathing
Carbon dioxide levels rise-Rate and depth of breathing increase

pH drops-Rate and depth of breathing increase

Fear and pain -Increase the breathing rate

Hyperventilation -Breathes rapidly and deeply
Decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood

“Inflation reflex”
Stretch receptors in pleural membranes are activated when the lungs are stretched
Triggers the depth of breathing to decrease to prevent overinflation of the lungs


External respiration

Exchange in the lungs
Gases diffuse across two cells to move back and forth between the capillaries and the alveoli
Concentration of oxygen is greater in the lungs than in the blood
Concentration of carbon dioxide is greater in the blood than in the lungs


Internal Respiration

Exchange with tissues
Concentration of oxygen is greater in the blood vessels (capillaries) than in the tissues
Carbon dioxide concentration is greater in the tissues than the blood