Ch 19 Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 19 Digestive System Deck (136)
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1

How does the digestive system maintain homeostasis?

Maintains homeostasis by taking in food and water and then eliminating the waste products
Functions of the digestive system are carried out by the organs of the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs

2

What are organs of the alimentary canal ?

Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anal canal

3

What are Accessory organs ?

Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

4

What do salivary glands do?

Accessory organ
Secrete saliva, which contain enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates

5

What does mouth do?

alimentary canal
mechanical breakdown of food
chemical digestion of carbs begins

6

what does pharynx do ?

alimentary canal
connects mouth to esophagus

7

What does esophagus do?

alimentary canal
peristalsis pushes food to stomach
behind the trachea

8

What does stomach do?

alimentary canal
secretes acid and enzymes; mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins

9

What does small intestine do?

alimentary canal
mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice
final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules
main site of nutrient absorption

10

What does the large intestine do?

alimentary canal
absorbs water and electrolytes to form poop

11

What does rectum do?

alimentary canal
regulates elimination of poop

12

What is ingestion?

Function of digestive system
Eating and drinking

13

What is Secretion?

Function of digestive system
Saliva, water, acids, and enzymes enter the mouth and GI tract to help with the breakdown and absorption of foods.

14

What is Mixing and propulsion?

Function of digestive system
Move food along its way to the anal canal

15

What is Digestion?

Function of digestive system
Break down food into small molecules
Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth with the mastication of food.
Chemical digestion involves the further breakdown of food by the enzymes secreted by salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.

16

What is Absorption ?

Function of digestive system
Into the blood and lymph
takes place within the GI tract lumen by epithelial surface layer

17

What is Defecation

Function of digestive system
Elimination of wastes, indigestible substances, unabsorbed substances, water, some cells, and bacteria

18

Describe the mouth and its functions

Oral or buccal cavity
Takes in food and reduces its size through mastication
Starts the process of chemical digestion when saliva (has amylase) breaks down carbs
Boundaries are cheek, lips, hard/soft palate

19

What is the vestibule?

Space located between the lips and cheeks and the teeth

20

What is the oral cavity proper/

Space behind the teeth

21

What do the cheeks do?

Hold food in the mouth
Skin, adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, and an inner lining of moist nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

22

What do lips do?

formed by Orbicularis muscle which closes the mouth
Fold of the mucous membrane called the labial frenulum that attaches the lips to the gingiva

23

What does the tongue do?

Made of skeletal muscle
Extrinsic muscles - attached to various bones such as the mandible and hyoid bone
Intrinsic muscles - change the shape and size of the tongue to assist with speech and swallowing
Held to the floor of the oral cavity by a fold of mucous membrane called the lingual frenulum (if too short - tongue tied or anklyoglossia)
On the dorsum (upper surface) of the tongue are many small projections called papillae (taste receptors and touch receptors)
Helps mix food and holds it between the teeth
Back of the tongue contains lymphatic tissue, called lingual tonsils, which destroy bacteria and viruses

24

What is the hard palate in the roof of the mouth?

Formed by the maxillary and palatine bones
Covered by a mucous membrane and stratified squamous epithelium

25

What is the soft palate in the roof of the mouth?

Posterior to the hard palate
Formed by muscle and is also covered by a mucous membrane
Separates the oral from the nasal cavity

26

What is the uvula?

Projecting off the posterior aspect of the soft palate
Prevents food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity during swallowing

27

What are the Lingual, palatine, and pharyngeal tonsils ?

protect the area from bacteria and viruses

28

Describe teeth

Incisors (most medial teeth), cut off food pieces
Cuspids (canines) are the sharpest teeth and they tear tough food
Premolars and molars are flatter, both are designed to grind food
Two sets of teeth
Primary or deciduous dentition (baby)
Secondary or permanent dentition (adult)

29

What are Salivary glands?

Secrete saliva, a mixture of water, enzymes, and mucus
Serous cells secrete a fluid made up mostly of water and also amylase
Mucous cells secrete mucus

Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands

30

What are serous cells?

cell in salivary gland
secrete a fluid made up mostly of water and also amylase