Ch 19 Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 19 Digestive System Deck (136)
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How does the digestive system maintain homeostasis?

Maintains homeostasis by taking in food and water and then eliminating the waste products
Functions of the digestive system are carried out by the organs of the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs


What are organs of the alimentary canal ?

Pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anal canal


What are Accessory organs ?

Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas


What do salivary glands do?

Accessory organ
Secrete saliva, which contain enzymes that initiate breakdown of carbohydrates


What does mouth do?

alimentary canal
mechanical breakdown of food
chemical digestion of carbs begins


what does pharynx do ?

alimentary canal
connects mouth to esophagus


What does esophagus do?

alimentary canal
peristalsis pushes food to stomach
behind the trachea


What does stomach do?

alimentary canal
secretes acid and enzymes; mixes food with secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins


What does small intestine do?

alimentary canal
mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice
final enzymatic breakdown of food molecules
main site of nutrient absorption


What does the large intestine do?

alimentary canal
absorbs water and electrolytes to form poop


What does rectum do?

alimentary canal
regulates elimination of poop


What is ingestion?

Function of digestive system
Eating and drinking


What is Secretion?

Function of digestive system
Saliva, water, acids, and enzymes enter the mouth and GI tract to help with the breakdown and absorption of foods.


What is Mixing and propulsion?

Function of digestive system
Move food along its way to the anal canal


What is Digestion?

Function of digestive system
Break down food into small molecules
Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth with the mastication of food.
Chemical digestion involves the further breakdown of food by the enzymes secreted by salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.


What is Absorption ?

Function of digestive system
Into the blood and lymph
takes place within the GI tract lumen by epithelial surface layer


What is Defecation

Function of digestive system
Elimination of wastes, indigestible substances, unabsorbed substances, water, some cells, and bacteria


Describe the mouth and its functions

Oral or buccal cavity
Takes in food and reduces its size through mastication
Starts the process of chemical digestion when saliva (has amylase) breaks down carbs
Boundaries are cheek, lips, hard/soft palate


What is the vestibule?

Space located between the lips and cheeks and the teeth


What is the oral cavity proper/

Space behind the teeth


What do the cheeks do?

Hold food in the mouth
Skin, adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, and an inner lining of moist nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium


What do lips do?

formed by Orbicularis muscle which closes the mouth
Fold of the mucous membrane called the labial frenulum that attaches the lips to the gingiva


What does the tongue do?

Made of skeletal muscle
Extrinsic muscles - attached to various bones such as the mandible and hyoid bone
Intrinsic muscles - change the shape and size of the tongue to assist with speech and swallowing
Held to the floor of the oral cavity by a fold of mucous membrane called the lingual frenulum (if too short - tongue tied or anklyoglossia)
On the dorsum (upper surface) of the tongue are many small projections called papillae (taste receptors and touch receptors)
Helps mix food and holds it between the teeth
Back of the tongue contains lymphatic tissue, called lingual tonsils, which destroy bacteria and viruses


What is the hard palate in the roof of the mouth?

Formed by the maxillary and palatine bones
Covered by a mucous membrane and stratified squamous epithelium


What is the soft palate in the roof of the mouth?

Posterior to the hard palate
Formed by muscle and is also covered by a mucous membrane
Separates the oral from the nasal cavity


What is the uvula?

Projecting off the posterior aspect of the soft palate
Prevents food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity during swallowing


What are the Lingual, palatine, and pharyngeal tonsils ?

protect the area from bacteria and viruses


Describe teeth

Incisors (most medial teeth), cut off food pieces
Cuspids (canines) are the sharpest teeth and they tear tough food
Premolars and molars are flatter, both are designed to grind food
Two sets of teeth
Primary or deciduous dentition (baby)
Secondary or permanent dentition (adult)


What are Salivary glands?

Secrete saliva, a mixture of water, enzymes, and mucus
Serous cells secrete a fluid made up mostly of water and also amylase
Mucous cells secrete mucus

Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands


What are serous cells?

cell in salivary gland
secrete a fluid made up mostly of water and also amylase