Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Health and Illness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Biological Foundations of Health and Illness Deck (79)
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1
Q

Describe Lakeesha’s story

A

She was born with mild spastic cerebral palsy due to her mother’s drinking. She grew up with a myriad of health problems, but overcame many of them with the help of therapy and surgery. Her story shows the importance of the biopsychosocial model, which is a holistic approach to the treatment of illness and disease. it shows the inextricable link between body and mind

2
Q

Biological processes are regulated by which systems?

A

cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, reproductive, nervous, digestive, and respiratory systems

3
Q

cells (2 types)

A

discovered by Robert Hooke in the 1600’s. the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Found them by examining thin slices of cork and other plants with a compound microscope

4
Q

prokaryotic cells

A

make up bacteria and other single-celled organisms

5
Q

eukaryotic cells

A

found in all other living organisms, and contain specialized, membrane bound internal structures called organelles

6
Q

how many cells does the human body have?

A

roughly 10 trillion with 200 different types of specialized cells

7
Q

tissue (epithelial and connective)

A

a group of similar cells that perform a function

8
Q

epithelial tissue

A

sheets of closely packed cells covering body organs and other surfaces. they form glands that secrete hormones, breast milk, and other substances

9
Q

connective tissue

A

made up of more widely separated cells that function to bind together and support organs and other body tissues. bone, cartilage, and tendons are types of connective tissue

10
Q

organ

A

a group of tissues working together to accomplish a specific funtion

11
Q

nervous system

A

major control over the body systems belongs to the nervous system, which is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves that receive and send messages in the body

12
Q

neurotransmitters

A

chemical messengers released by a neuron at synapses that communicate across the synaptic gap and alter the electrical state of a receiving neuron

13
Q

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

A

divided into two systems: the somatic and autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) nervous systems

14
Q

central nervous system (CNS)

A

contains the brain and spinal cord

15
Q

brain

A

3 pounds of soft cheese that is responsible for movement, thinking, breathing, and speaking

16
Q

brainstem

A

the oldest and most central region of the brain; includes the medulla, pons, and reticular formation. it was the first evolution in the vertebrate brain

17
Q

why does the brain control opposite sides of the body?

A

because of crossing of nerves in the brain stem

18
Q

medulla (vital reflexes)

A

brainstem region that controls vital reflexes, such as heartbeat, salivation, sneezing, coughing, and breathing. damage to the medulla can be fatal

19
Q

pons (unconscious necessities)

A

just on top of the medulla, the pons consists of two pairs of thick stalks that connect to the cerebellum. the pons contain nuclei that help regulate sleep, breathing, swallowing, bladder control, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, and the like

20
Q

the reticular formation (alertness and arousal)

A

a network of neurons running through the brainstem involved with alertness, sleep and arousal. it also alerts the brain during moments of danger and it prioritizes all incoming information

21
Q

thalamus (senses -> cortex)

A

the brains sensory switchboard; located on top of the brainstem, it routes messages to the cerebral cortex

22
Q

cerebellum (movement)

A

maintain body balance and coordinate voluntary muscle movement

23
Q

limbic system (amyg, hipp, and hypo)

A

a network of neurons surrounding the central core of the brain; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression; includes the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus

24
Q

amygdala (emotion/aggression)

A

two clusters of neurons in the limbic system that are linked to emotion, especially aggression (study on aggressive rhesus monkey where they surgically destroyed its amygdala, which made it docile)

25
Q

hippocampus (spatial and memory)

A

limbic system linked to learning, spatial orientation, and memory. when it is damaged, people usually develop anterograde amnesia (unable to form new memories)

26
Q

hypothalamus (boss of endocrine)

A

just below the thalamus, the region of the brain that influences hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland

27
Q

cerebral cortex

A

the thin layer of cells that covers the cerebrum; the seat of the conscious sensation and information processing

28
Q

the human brian

A

the cerebrum, which is covered in a network of blood vessels and made up of extensive folds and convolutions, is divided into two hemispheres

29
Q

occipital lobe (vision)

A

receives visual information from the retina of each eye

30
Q

parietal lobe (skin and body)

A

receives information from the skin and body

31
Q

temporal lobe (hearing)

A

receives information from the ears

32
Q

frontal lobe (high processing/movement)

A

involved in reasoning, planning, and controlling body movement

33
Q

sensory cortex

A

processes body sensations such as touch

34
Q

motor cortex (more cortex = more control)

A

controls voluntary movements. Wilder Penfield discovered that the amount of motor cortex devoted to a specific body part is proportional to the degree of control we have over that body part

35
Q

association cortex (thinking and speaking)

A

areas of the cerebral cortex not directly involved in sensory or motor functions; rather, they integrate multi-sensory information and higher mental functions such as thinking and speaking

36
Q

hormones

A

chemical messengers, released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands, which have an effect on distant organs

37
Q

endocrine system (secrete hormones to receptor sites)

A

closely related to the nervous system, but the NS communicates with neurotransmitters and the ES communicates with hormones. the ES governs slow-acting responses of longer duration. the endocrine glands submit hormones directly into the bloodstream, where they travel to various organs and bind to receptor sites

38
Q

pituitary gland (master gland CRH and ACTH)

A

master endocrine gland (hypothalamus is really the master because it has complete control over the pituitary) controlled by the hypothalamus; releases a variety of hormones (growth, sexual development, reproduction, kidney, and aging) that act on other glands throughout the body

39
Q

adrenal glands (norep, ep)

A

lying above the kidneys, the pair of endocrine glands that secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, which are hormones that arouse the body during movements of stress

40
Q

thyroid gland (growth+energy)

A

produces thyroxin, which helps regulate the body’s growth and metabolism (energy use)

41
Q

parathyroid gland (calcium)

A

hormones secreted by these glands regulate calcium in the body within a narrow range so that the nervous and muscular systems can function properly

42
Q

pancreas (glucagon/insulin)

A

produces glucagon, and insulin, two hormones that act in opposition to regulate the level of the sugar glucose in the blood. glucagon raises glucose concentration, while insulin controls the conversion of sugar and carbs into energy by promoting the uptake of glucose in the body’s cells

43
Q

arteries

A

blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood way from the heart to other organs and tissues; a small artery is called an arteriole

44
Q

veins

A

blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the capillaries

45
Q

blood

A

living tissue

46
Q

red blood cells

A

carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body (formed in the bone marrow and hold hemoglobin)

47
Q

white blood cells

A

part of the immune system, and the platelets are small cell fragments that stick together to form clots along the walls of damaged blood vessels

48
Q

bronchi (lung stems)

A

the pair of respiratory tubes that branch into progressively smaller passageways, the bronchioles, culminating in the air sacs within the right and left lungs

49
Q

respiratory system (pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli)

A

air enters through the nose and mouth, passes into the pharynx, past the larynx (voice box), and into the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles to the alveoli. The alveoli are where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged

50
Q

gastrointestinal system (digests food)

A

the body’s system of digesting food; includes digestive tract (large/small intestine), salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder

51
Q

cilia

A

hairs in the nose, mouth, and trachea that trap germs and force them out of the respiratory system

52
Q

noncommunicable disease

A

a chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes, that cannot be passed from person to person

53
Q

food digestion process

A

starts in the mouth where chemical action of salivary enzymes begin to break food down. Saliva makes food easier to swallow. After being swallowed, food passes to the esophagus, a 9.3 in muscular tube, which contracts rhythmically to push the food downwards (peristalis). in the stomach, food is mixed with a variety of gastric juices, including hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins. after about 4 hours, the stomach has entered its contents into the small and large intestine. digestive fluids from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are secreted into the small intestine through a series of ducts. Any food that wasn’t processed by the small intestine passes to the big intestine, which adds more water to the mix

54
Q

antigens

A

can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or any foreign microorganisms - are dangerous to your health, even deadly

55
Q

lymphocytes

A

produced in bone marrow, patrol the entire body, searching for bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells, and other antigens

56
Q

immune systems

A

network of capillaries, lymph nodes (glands), and ducts that comprise the lymphatic system

57
Q

lymph nodes

A

contain filters that capture infectious diseases and debris; lymph passes through the lymph nodes, the lymphocytes destroy the foreign particles collected there

58
Q

what play a part in the activity of lymphocytes?

A

the thymus and tonsils. The thymus functions as a part of the endocrine system (secretes thymosin - a hormone that helps control the maturation and development of lymphoctyres), and the tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissue that seem to function as a holding station for lymphocytes, as well as a garbage can for worn-out blood cells

59
Q

non specific immune response

A

first line is the nose, eyes, and respiratory tract. when someone penetrates skin cells, it encounters the second line of defense called phagocytosis, where phagocytes and macrophages attack the foreign particles

60
Q

natural killers

A

another part of the non specific immune system response. natural killers are smaller lymphocytes, which patrol the body for diseased cells that have gone awry. nk’s inject their targets with lethal chemicals

61
Q

specific immune response

A

immune system’s most powerful line of response, which occur when a particular substance has been encountered before. some specific immunities are acquired when a nursing mother passes a specific immunity to her child through breast milk, and others develop when a person successfully weathers a disease such as measles or is immunized

62
Q

specific immune responses involve what types of cells?

A

special lymphocytes called B cells and T cells, which recognize and attack specific invading antigens. B cells attack foreign substances by producing specific antibodies, or immunoglobulins, which are proteins that chemically suppress the toxic effects of antigens, primarily viruses and bacteria

63
Q

b cells

A

when a b cell is activated by a particular antigen, it divides into two types: a plasma cell capable of making 3000 to 30000 antibody molecules per second, and an antibody-producing memory cell. the rapid response of memory cells, called primary response, is the basis of immunity to many infections diseases, including polio, measles, and small pox

64
Q

t cells

A

directly attack and kill foreign substances without the aid of antibodies. there are three major varieties of t cells: cytotoxic cells, helper cells, and suppressor cells. Cytotoxic cells are killer cells that have a receptor that matches one specific antigen. helper t cells and suppressor t cells are the principal mechanisms for regulating the immune system’s overall response to infection. they do so by secreting lymphokines, which stimulate or inhibit activity in other immune cells.

65
Q

helper T cells

A

sentries that travel through the bloodstream hunting antigens. when they find them, they secrete chemical messengers that alert b cells, phagocytes, macrophages, and cytotoxic t cells to attack

66
Q

suppressor t cells

A

serve as counter regulatory function. by producing chemicals that suppress immune responses, these cells ensure that an overzealous immune response doesn’t damage healthy cells

67
Q

APR

A

acute phase response are the sweeping behavioral and physiological changes that occur. in addition to a fever, the APR is accompanied by reduced activity and food/water intake, increased sensitivity to pain, disrupted memory consolidation, and increased anxiety

68
Q

cytokines

A

chemical messengers that send the body into APR. these are produced in the blood by macrophages

69
Q

ovaries

A

on either side of the uterus, produce estrogen and progesterone

70
Q

testes

A

produce testosterone, which stimulates the development of secondary sex characteristics and brings about the production of sperm

71
Q

genome

A

the complete instructions for making an organism; including all the genetic material found in that organism’s chromosomes

72
Q

monozygotic twins

A

one fertilized egg divides into two, producing identical twins; two individuals with the same genetic makeup

73
Q

stem cells

A

early, undifferentiated biological cells with the potential to develop into any other type of specialized cell

74
Q

genotype

A

the sum total of all the genes present in an individual

75
Q

phenotype

A

a person’s observable characteristics; determined by the interaction of the individual’s genotype with the environment

76
Q

autonomic nervous system

A

divided into the parasympathetic (calming the body down by slowing the heartbeat, stimulating digestion, and triggering other restorative processes in the body) and sympathetic (prepares the body for fight-or-flight responses, accelerating heartbeat, stimulating the secretion of adrenaline) nervous systems

77
Q

CRH

A

corticotropin release hormone, in charge of the stress response

78
Q

ACTH

A

adrenocorticotropic hormone, regulates levels of steroid hormone, cortisol

79
Q

cortisol

A

steroid hormone released in response to stress when blood-glucose levels are low (can help control blood sugar, regulate metabolism, reduce inflammation, assist in memory formation)