Chapter 6: Primary Prevention and Positive Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Primary Prevention and Positive Psychology Deck (44)
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1
Q

health behaviors

A

health-enhancing behavior or habits.

  • practicing safe sex
  • exercise
  • sleeping well
2
Q

health-belief model (4 factors)

A

decisions about health behaviors are based on four interacting factors that influence our perceptions about health threats

1) perceived susceptibility
2) perceived severity of health threat
3) perceived benefits of and barriers to treatment
4) cues to action

3
Q

HBM: perceived susceptibility

A

the greater the perceived susceptibility, the stronger the motivation to engage in health-promoting behaviors. Adolescents seem to follow the invincibility fable

4
Q

HBM: perceived severity of health threat

A

how severe someone feels the threat is will impact whether or not they will engage in health-promoting behaviors against it

5
Q

HBM: perceived benefits of and barriers to treatment

A

in evaluating the pros and cons of a particular health behavior, a person decides whether its perceived benefits exceed its carriers.

Someone may overlook the huge advantages of quitting smoking because they fear becoming overweight from quitting

6
Q

HBM: cues to action

A

advice from friends, media health campaigns, and factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and gender will also influence the likelihood that someone will act

7
Q

HBM in summary

A

in summary, the HBM is a commonsense theory proposing that people will take action to ward off or control illness-inducing conditions if 1) they regard themselves as susceptible 2) they believe the condition has serious personal consequences 3) they believe a course of action will reduce either their susceptibility or the severity of the condition 4) they believe that the benefits of the action outweigh the costs 5) the environmental influences are encouraging change

8
Q

self-efficacy in health-promoting behaviors

A

focuses not only on how people appraise threats to their health, but also on their ability to manage these threats by acting more healthfully

those with higher self-efficacy will manage and perform more health behaviors than those without self-efficacy

9
Q

Theory of Planned Behavior

A

specifies relationships among attitudes and behavior. This theory maintains that the best way to predict whether a health behavior will occur is to measure behavioral intention - the decision to either engage in or refrain from a health-related behavior

social norms/values mediate participation in certain health-enhancing behaviors

10
Q

What three factors shape behavioral intention/ the TPB?

A

1) ATTITUDE toward the behavior, which is determined by the belief that engaging in the behavior will lead to certain outcomes
2) SUBJECTIVE NORM, which reflects our motivation to comply with the views of other people regarding the behavior in question
3) PERCEIVED BEHAVIORAL CONTROL, which refers to our expectation of success in performing the health behavior

11
Q

What is the TPB model not so good at predicting?

A

premarital sex and drunk driving

12
Q

the transtheoretical model

A

states that behavior often changes systematically through distinct stages. There are 4 stages. This model acknowledges that people move back and forth between stages

13
Q

TTM stage 1: precontemplation

A

during this stage, people are not seriously thinking about changing their behavior. They may even refuse to acknowledge that their behavior needs to change

14
Q

TTM stage 2: contemplation

A

during this stage, people acknowledge the existence of a problem and are seriously considering changing their behavior in the near future

15
Q

TTM stage 3: preparation

A

this state includes both thoughts and action. in preparing to quit smoking, for example, a person obtains a perscription for a nicotine patch, joins a support group, enlists family support, and makes other specific plans

16
Q

TTM stage 4: action

A

during this stage, people have actually changed their behaior and are trying to sustain their efforts

17
Q

TTM stage 5: maintenance

A

people in this stage continue to be successful in their efforts to reach their final goal

18
Q

primary prevention

A

refers to health-promoting actions that are taken to prevent a disease or injury from occurring. Examples of primary prevention include wearing a seatbelt, practicing good nutrition, exercising, avoiding smoking, maintaining healthy sleep patterns, and going for regular health screenings

19
Q

secondary prevention

A

involves actions taken to identify and treat an illness EARLY IN ITS COURSE

in the case of a person who has high blood pressure, for example, secondary prevention would include regular examinations to monitor symptoms

20
Q

tertiary prevention

A

involves actions taken to contain or retard damage once a disease has progressed beyond its early stages

use of radiation therapy or chemotherapy to destroy a cancerous tumor

21
Q

family barriers to health behaviors

A

overt family conflict, manifested in frequent episodes of anger and aggression, and deficient nurturing, including relationships that are unsupportive, cold, and even neglectful

22
Q

health system barriers to health behaviors

A

not having insurance can have a devastating impact on a person’s health and financial security

23
Q

community barriers to health behaviors

A

people are more likely to adopt health-enhancing behaviors when they are modeled in the community (schools, government, and the health care system).

24
Q

community health education: precede/proceed model

A

states that planning for health education

1) begins by identifying specific health problems in a targeted group
2) next, lifestyle and environmental elements that contribute to the targeted health problem are identified. 3) Then, background factors that predispose, enable, and reinforce these lifestyle and environmental factors are analyzed to determine the possible use of health education and other interventions
4) during the final phase, health education programs are designed, initiated, and evaluated

25
Q

long term health campaigns

A

typically ineffective at motivating people to change long-held health habits

generally, multifaceted community campaigns that present information on several fronts works better than “single-shot” campaigns.

26
Q

community programs for health initiatives

A

on the rise and have several advantages:

1) they can promote changes that are difficult for individuals to accomplish, such as creating bike paths and other public exercise facilities
2) unlike interventions that focus on high-risk individuals, community programs reach out to a broader audience

27
Q

gain framed messaging

A

focus on the positive outcome from adopting a health promoting behavior (if you exercise regularly, you are likely to look and feel better)

28
Q

loss framed messaging

A

a health message that focuses on a negative outcome from failing to perfomr ahealth-promoting behavior

29
Q

loss framed appeals

A

perceived control or self-efficacy in following through with the behavior has a large impact on success of framing. Scare tactics aren’t as effective as moderate tactics

30
Q

conclusion about framing

A

reserach on framing of health messages reveals a basic pattern: gain-framed messages are effective in promoting prevention behaviors, while loss-framed ones are effective in promoting illness-detection behaviors

31
Q

cognitive behavioral interventions: self-monitoring

A

initial step in promoting behavior change. people keeping track of their own target behavior that is to be modified, including the sitmuli associated with it and the consequences that follow it

32
Q

cognitive behavioral interventions: discriminative stimuli

A

environmental signals that communicate to the brain that certain behaviors will be followed by reinforcement

sights and smells of a holiday meal that is being prepared can be discriminative stimuli for overeating. The various sounds, smells, and sights a former smoker encounters upon entering a noisy bar can be potent discriminative stimuli that trigger the urge to smoke

33
Q

key aspects in using operant conditioning to modify health behaviors

A

stimulus control and contigency contracting.

34
Q

cognitive behavioral interventions: stimulus-control interventions

A

a behavioral intervention aimed at modifying the environmental discriminative stimuli that control a target behavior by signaling its reinforcement

for people who are trying to reduce snacking on calorie-dense food, a good first step is to eliminate the presence of such foods in their home.

35
Q

promoting healthy workplaces: relapse prevention

A

training in coping skills and other techniques intended to help people resist falling back into old health habits following a successful behavioral intervention

36
Q

promoting healthy workplaces:contingency contract

A

formal agreement between a person attempting to change a health behvaior and another individual, such as a therapist, regarding the consequences of target behaviors

37
Q

four dimensions of healthy workplaces

A

1) stress
2) work-family relations
3) violence prevention
4) relationships at work

38
Q

positive psychology

A

the study of optimal human functioning and the healthy interplay between people and their environment

39
Q

thriving

A

a paradoxical outcome in which adversity somehow leads people to greater psychological and or physical well being

40
Q

allostatic overload

A

the consequences of long-term elevations of stress-related catabolic hormones, including hypertension, wasted muscles, ulcers, fatigue, and increased risk of chronic disease

41
Q

biological embedding (neurobiology of resilience)

A

the processes by which the structure and fuctioning of the breain are shaped by feedback from neuroendocrine systems as they are engaged as part of the body’s effort to maintain homeostasis

42
Q

positive psychology: psychosocial factors of thriving

A

self-enhancement: a tendency to recall positive over negative information, to see oneself more positively than do others, and to feel personally responsible for good outcomes
social integration: number of social roles a person participates in. people with more social inegration live longer and retain better mental/physical health
relaxation: wakeful relaxation is associated with decreases in negative emotions and alterations of neuroendocrine functions

43
Q

positive psychology: psychological factors of thriving

A

curiosity: person’s orientation/attraction to novel stimuli; helps maintain a healthy central nervous system
perceived control and self-efficacy: having both increases psychological resilience
social engagement: engaging with others

44
Q

anabolism and catabolism (all about the metabolism)

A

2 types of metabolic reactions take place in the cell: anabolism (building up) and catabolism (breaking down).

anabolic reactions use up energy. They are endergonic. in an anabolic reaction, small molecules join to make larger ones (amino acids joining to make dipeptides)

catabolism gives out energy, they are exergonic. in a catabolic reaction, large molecules are broken down into smaller ones