Chapter 12: Chronic and Life-Threatening Illnesses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Chronic and Life-Threatening Illnesses Deck (30)
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1
Q

sexually transmitted infections

A

infections that are spread primarily through person-to-person sexual conduct

2
Q

noncommunicable disease

A

a noninfectious disease; one that is nontransmissible

the world has shifted largely toward these diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes

3
Q

communicable disease

A

a disease that is transmitted from a human to another human, from a human to an animal, or from an animal to a human

can be controlled by:
vaccinations
hygiene
cleaner water
healthier sanitation measures
4
Q

poor populations face…

A

double burden of high rates of both:

communicable and noncommunicable disease.

5
Q

epidemiological transition

A

a shift in the disease pattern of a population as mortality falls

acute, infectious diseases are reduced, while chronic, noncommunicable diseases increase in prevalence

6
Q

HIV and AIDS for men and women

A

more women die from HIV and AIDS, and more men die from tuberculosis

7
Q

antimicrobial resistance

A

the ability for bacteria, viruses, and other microbes to resist the effect of drugs

8
Q

acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS)

A

the most advanced stages of HIV infection

defined by a T-cell count of less than 200 and the occurrence of opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers that take advantage of a weakened immune system

9
Q

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

A

a virus that infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function

10
Q

Kaposi’s sarcoma

A

a rare cancer of blood vessels serving the skin, mucous membranes, and other glands in the body

11
Q

pandemic

A

an epidemic covering a vast geographical area

12
Q

gender and AIDS

A

women are being diagnosed more frequently than men, especially in developing countries where women have less control over their bodies and conditions of sexual intercourse

13
Q

demographic patterns and AIDS

A

disproportionately affects minority populations in the US. In impoverished minority communities, people share needles when using illegal drugs

14
Q

how can HIV be spread?

A

unprotected sex (vaginal and anal intercourse)
blood, including by transfusion, accidential needle sticks, or needle sharing
mother to child transmission
transplantation of infected tissue

*fortunately it is transmitted less easily than other viruses

15
Q

gential human papillomavirus (HPV)

A

the most common sexually transmitted disease. it’s passed through gential contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. It can also be passed through oral sex

Nearly all sexually active women and men contract HPV throughout their lives

16
Q

hemophelia

A

a genetic disease in which the blood fails to clot quickly enough, causing uncontrollable bleeding from even the smallest cut

17
Q

retrovirus

A

a virus that copies its genetic material onto the DNA of a host cell

like all viruses, HIV can replicate only inside lymphocytes, taking over their machinery to reproduce

18
Q

HIV Stage 1:

A

lasts from one to eight weeks

the immune system destroys most HIV, so people experience only mild symptoms that are similar to those of many other illnesses, such as swollen lymph glands, sore throat, fever, chronic diarrhea, skeletal pain, gynecological infection in women, neurological problems, and in some cases, a skin rash

19
Q

HIV Stage 2: Latency

A

may last for months or years, appears to be a period of latency

the person has no obvious symptoms expect perhaps for swollen lymph nodes, which may go unnoticed; nevertheless, the HIV infection is far from inactive. during stage 2, as t cell concentration falls, HIV is constantly replicating

20
Q

HIV Stage 3

A

Within 5 years, 30 percent of infected people move to stage 3, when t cells are further reduced, immune function is impaired, and opportunities infections occur

21
Q

HIV Stage 4

A

the number of t cells drops from a healthy count of 1000 to 200 or less per cubic milliliter of blood, and almost all natural immunity is lost

at this point, HIV has developed into AIDS. as t cell levels drop below 100, the balance of power in the immune system shifts to favor the invading virus. HIV levels soar, and microorganisms that the immune system normal would destroy easily begin to proliferate.

22
Q

physiological factors in AIDS

A

1) strength of the initial immune response. HIV progresses much more slowly among patients whose immune systems mount strong lymphocyte activity in the acute stage of HIV sickness
2) genetic vulnerability may affect the rate at which AIDS develops. Viruses require collaboration from the body, which in the case of AIDS is the existence of the protein receptor to which HIV particles bind

23
Q

psychological factors in the progression of AIDS (3)

A

discrimination and social exclusion is suggested to be an important factor contributing to risk behaviors and HIV infection

stress, negative emotions, and social isolation may influence the pace at which AIDS progresses, perhaps by altering hormonal and immune environments that affect the resistance of host cells to the invading virus.

social support is also a critical factor int he progression of HIV sickness and AIDS. Lack of social support may cause AIDS to develop more quickly, partly because it leaves those who are HIV positive less able to cope effectively with stressful life events

24
Q

antiretroviral therapy

A

most successful treatment for HIV and AIDS to date.

25
Q

psychosocial interventions (2)

A

primary: educate people about being tested for infection and helping individuals modify high-risk behaviors
secondary: includes helping patients cope with treatment regimens, as well emotional and cognitive disturbances related to infection

26
Q

social-cognitive model (3)

A

1) perceived social norms regarding acceptance of HIV risk-reducing behaviors
2) self-efficacy beleifs controlling one’s own thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in order to avoid unsafe behaviors
3) social skills, the ability to respond assertively in negotiating risky behaviors

27
Q

dynamic tailoring

A

refers to the delivering of individualized health messages over multiple time periods to provide unique feedback based on the individual’s status at that moment in time.

28
Q

cognitive behavioral stress management with AIDS

A

men who participated in the CBSM intervention reported significantly lower post-treatment levels of anxiety , anger, total mood disturbances, and perceived stress compared to the men who were assigned to an untreated control group

Those in the intervention group also displayed less norepinephrine output and significantly greater numbers of T cells 6 to 12 months later

29
Q

community-wide interventions

A

intensive, coordinated, community-wide interventions have proved to be the best way to:

educate people about HIV
to change social norms that influence sexual behavior

30
Q

epidemiology of AIDS

A

initially diagnosed in white gay men and injection drug users

later considered a pandemic, effecting adults and children mainly in developing countries

6th leading cause of death worldwide