Chapter 4: Stress Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Stress Deck (49)
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1
Q

Hans Seyle

A

Hungarian born endocrinologist credited with discovering two major components of stress: 1) the body has a remarkably similar response to many different stressors 2) stressors can sometimes make you sick

2
Q

stressor

A

any event or situation that triggers coping adjustments

3
Q

stress

A

the process by which we perceive and respond to events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. it’s important to know that we must judge a challenging event or situation to be threatening or even beyond our ability to cope before we will be stressed by it. stress is a function of appraisal

4
Q

is stress sometimes beneficial when it’s short-lived?

A

yes. it can have positive effects such as mobilizing the immune system to fight off disease and infection, and promote healing

5
Q

biological stress responses can?

A

can differ somewhat according to each individual’s unique physiology/physiological reactivity (same basic processes affect us all)

6
Q

psychological stress responses can?

A

affect how we appraise challenging situations - either as manageable (not stressful) or unmanageable (stressful) - based on our personalities and individual life experiences

7
Q

sociocultural stress responses can?

A

affect how we appraise stress from many different sources, including major life events, daily hassles, work, and family

8
Q

stressors: significant life events

A

the SRRS (social readjustment rating scale) was the first systematic attempt to quantify the impact of life changes on health. (life changing units) LCU’s were positively correlated with likelihood of getting sick. problems with this study included vague and subjective items being listed as reasons for LCU’s, failed to consider individual differences, and the SRRS and other scales lump all events together - whether positive or negative

9
Q

what is important to remember about psychological theory in general?

A

a measure of a good theory is that it generates research that leads to new understanding, even if it also leads to its own demise.

10
Q

stressors: daily hassles

A

more significant sources of stress than significant life events due to differences in frequency (concern about weight, health of a family member, home maintenance, and misplacing/losing something)

11
Q

everyday hassles

A

mundane irritants and stressors negatively impact physical and mental health more than major life events. those with higher anxiety to begin with, those with trouble letting go, and people who perceive low levels of social support will find daily hassles more stressful

12
Q

background stress

A

coupled with daily hassles can significantly increase one’s likelihood of getting sick

13
Q

stressors: work

A

job stress that is chronic is dangerous for one’s health. busier people are happier, but chronic stress is unhealthy

14
Q

age and job change

A

the older you are, the more stressful a job change will become because your skills may not be current for a job market you maybe didn’t plan on being in, disruptive to a social network, and a loss of job seniority often means a lower salary

15
Q

social evaluative threat

A

a stressor in which people fear negative evaluation by others of their appearance or ability

16
Q

stereotype threat

A

the experience of stress in a situation where a person’s ability, appearance, or other characteristic has the potential to confirm a negative viewpoint about his or her racial group

17
Q

overload

A

a job environment where you’re being overworked for too long

18
Q

role overload

A

managing multiple roles affects both men and women - increase in employment of women has triggered more research on role overload and job related stress in women

19
Q

what have researchers found about multiple roles with regard to women?

A

there are generally health benefits associated with playing multiple roles with women. employment is an important source of self esteem and life satisfaction

20
Q

what have researchers concluded about roles?

A

number of roles doesn’t matter, the quality of the experience in those roles does

21
Q

burnout

A

physical and psychological exhaustion (mental exhaustion, absenteeism, high job turnover, abnormal stress hormone levels)

22
Q

the demand - control model

A

job requirements vs. workers’ perception of autonomy. people who experience high demands with little control over there jobs are more likely stressed. repetitive tasks with little autonomy cause workers to stress most

23
Q

other sources of job related stress

A

role ambiguity and conflict, shift work, job loss, lack of fairness and inadequate career development

24
Q

social interactions

A

help deal with stress, often serving as a buffer against low control

25
Q

the physiology of stress

A

epinephrine and cortisol are released into the bloodstream in fight or flight mode (worrying about the boss causes the same effect in the body as does having a Mexican standoff with a wild animal)

26
Q

the role of the nervous system in stress

A

somatic nervous system neurons transmit nerve impulses to our brain, announcing a threat. the reticular formation alerts the brain of the challenge

27
Q

the role of the endocrine system

A

under stress, the hypothalamus orders the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which is taken up by the receptors in the adrenal glands and orders the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood

28
Q

physiological measures

A

changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and the electrical conductance of the skin. samples of saliva can tell researchers how much epinephrine and norepinephrine is in the blood, indicating stress levels

29
Q

psychoneuroimmunology

A

the field of research that emphasizes the interaction of psychological, neural, and immunological processes in stress and illness

30
Q

the direct effect hypothesis

A

stress may directly effect immune efficiency through the activation of the HPA and SAM axes. stress activates immune responses

31
Q

the indirect hypothesis

A

stress alters immune processes indirectly by encouraging maladaptive behaviors

32
Q

duration of stress

A

duration of stress is linked to its effect on the body. chronic stress is worse for the body than short term stress

33
Q

allostatic load

A

the cumulative long-term effects of the body’s physiological response to stress

34
Q

glucocorticoid receptor resistance model

A

the idea that chronic stress promotes the development and progression of disease by reducing the sensitivity of immune system receptors to glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol, thereby interfering with the body’s ability to regulate the inflammatory response

35
Q

general-adaptation syndrome (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)

A

Selye’s term for the body’s reaction to stress, which consists of three stages, alarm, resistance, and exhaustion

36
Q

transactional model

A

Lazarus’s theory that the experience of stress depends as much on the individual’s appraisal of a stressor’s impact as it does on the event or situation itself

37
Q

primary appraisal

A

a person’s initial determination of an event’s meaning, whether irrelevant, benign-positive, or threatening

38
Q

secondary appraisal

A

a person’s determination of whether his or her own resources and abilities are sufficient to meet the demands of an event that is appraised as potentially threatening or challenging

39
Q

cognitive reappraisal

A

we constantly reevaluate stressful events

40
Q

diathesis stress model

A

predisposing factors int he person and precipitating factors from the environment determine susceptibility to stress-related illness

41
Q

reactivity

A

our physiological reaction to stress, which varies by individual and affects our vulnerability to illness

42
Q

PTSD

A

a psychological disorder triggered by expose to an extreme traumatic stressor such as combat or a natural disaster

43
Q

SAM (sympatho pituitary medullary)

A

first response hypothalamus orders the pituitary to release adreno corticotropic hormone, which triggers the release of epinepherine by the adrenal medulla

44
Q

HPA (hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical)

A

this is the second line response, which is responsible for returning the body to its original state of equilibrium, a process known as homeostasis. The HPA is activated when messages from the central nervous system are sent to the hypothalamus, which in turn secretes corticotropin release hormone (CRH) or corticosteroids that reduce inflammation and promoted healing

45
Q

corticosteroids

A

produced in the adrenal cortex, that fight inflammation, promote healing, and trigger the release of stored energy

46
Q

glucocorticoid receptor resistance model

A

the idea that chronic stress promotes the development and progression of disease by reducing the sensitivity of immune system receptors to glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol, thereby interfering with the body’s ability to regulate the inflammatory response

47
Q

eustress

A

positive health enhancing stress

48
Q

Per Lazurus

A

built the framework that says we decide if a stressor is controllable and important when we encounter it

49
Q

cortisol (glucocorticoid)

A

powerful hormone that regulates metabolism in cells and regulates stress responses. steroid-based hormone. amount of cortisol depends on how much stress you’re experiencing