Chapter 1: Intro to HP Flashcards Preview

Health Psychology > Chapter 1: Intro to HP > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1: Intro to HP Deck (36)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Health

A

social, physical, and psychological well-being

2
Q

Health Psychology (2 things)

A

apply psychological principles/research to advance health and to the prevention/treatment of disease/illness

3
Q

What factors effect one’s overall health? Think BPS model

A

1) Social conditions (availability of health care and support of family and friends)
2) biological factors (hereditary predisposition to contract certain diseases)
3) SOMETIMES, personality traits (optimism)

4
Q

What are 5 social determinants of health? HEEES

A

Education, economic stability, neighborhood/environment, health and health care, and social/community context

5
Q

Prehistoric Period 10,000 BCE - 1,450 BCE

A

people thought disease was caused by spirits and demons; treated by trephination

6
Q

Hippocrates (Greece in 460 B.C.E)

A

“father of Western medicine.” (460-377 BCE). Suggested the humoral theory, which was a health concept that considered wellness a state of perfect equilibrium between 4 bodily fluids called humors

7
Q

Health Disparities (preventable experienced by the disadvantaged)

A

preventable differences in health, disease, violence, or injury to achieve health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations. Healthy People 2010 and 2020 study social determinants of health

8
Q

Middle Ages (476-1450)

A

people thought that disease was living punishment for sins, cured by miraculous intervention and evoking of saints

9
Q

What countries first began experimenting with medicine?

A

China (1100-200), Greece, Egypt (2000 BCE), and Italy (Romans 200 BCE)

10
Q

Renaissance (1600’s CE) (surgery first used)

A

disease is purely physical (separate from the mind). Surgical techniques were first used during this time

11
Q

1800’s

A

Disease caused by microscopic organisms; treatment was surgery and immunization

12
Q

1920’s

A

Disease influenced by mind and emotions and treated by psychoanalysis, psychiatry, and other medical methods.

13
Q

21st Century

A

Biopsychosocial causes of disease. Modern, flexible methods of treatment

14
Q

Epidemic

A

“among the people.” Disease spreading rapidly among a community of people at the same time (Black Death)

15
Q

Pandemic

A

disease affecting people over a large geographical area (multiple continents or worldwide)

16
Q

Biopsychosocial Model (21st Century)

A

health is determined by social, biological, and psychological factors

17
Q

Biological Context

A

Genomics is introduced (study of genes). The evolutionary perspective was the idea that genes and behavior exist because they helped our ancestors survive. The Life-Course perspective examines important age-related aspects of health and illness.

18
Q

Psychological Context (cognition “thought” and more controllable)

A

Beliefs and attitudes, how stress is appraised, interpreted, and the coping process, and subjective well-being

19
Q

Biomedical Model of Medicine (purely physical cause of disease, being a pathogen)

A

20th century view that illness has a physical cause. It assumes that disease is a result of a pathogen entering the body. It makes no provision for psychological, social, or behavioral variables in illness. This model embraced reductionism, which stated that complex phenomena derive ultimately from a single, primary factor.

20
Q

Psychosomatic Medicine (20th century flip side of biomedical model)

A

branch of psychiatry focused on curing disease thought to be caused by emotional conflicts . Psycho (psyche) + somatic (relating to the body) = disease

21
Q

Etiology (cause)

A

scientific study of the causes of disease

22
Q

What was an issue with the biomedical model?

A

It was unable to explain disorders that had no observable physical cause, such as those uncovered by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

23
Q

Social Context (society and sociocultural lens)

A
  • Society influences health through gender, birth cohort, family, community, etc.
  • Sociocultural perspective explicitly considers the role of culture in health and disease
24
Q

Ecological Systems Approach (hierarchy of nature composed of smaller ones)

A

viewpoint that nature is best understood as a hierarchy of systems in which each system is simultaneously composed of smaller subsystems

  • Cardiovascular, immune, endocrine
  • nervous, muscles, fibers
25
Q

Epigenetics (environment - genes)

A

the effects of environmental forces on how genes are expressed

26
Q

Sociocultural and Gender Perspectives

A

SC - examines how social and cultural factors influence health and wellness. G - focuses on the gender-specific health behaviors, problems, and barriers to health care (think of the race/sex study on catheterization)

27
Q

Positive Health (scientific study of health assets)

A

scientific study of health assets, which are factors that produce longer life, reduce illness, and increase overall well-being

28
Q

Health Literacy

A

ability to understand health info. and use it to make good decisions with regard to your health

29
Q

Massification

A

transformation of a product or service that was once only available to the wealthy such that it becomes accessible to everyone

30
Q

ecology

A

the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings

31
Q

subjective wellbeing (psychological context)

A

the cognitive and emotional evaluations of a person’s life

32
Q

evolutionary perspective (biological context)

A

our characteristics and human traits and behaviors exist as they do because they helped our distant ancestors survive long enough to reproduce and send their genes into the future

33
Q

life course perspective (biological context)

A

focuses on important age-related aspects of health and illness. For example, it would consider how a pregnant woman’s malnutrition, smoking, or use of psychoactive drugs would affect her child’s life long development

34
Q

birth cohort (social context)

A

a group of people who, because they were born at about the same time, experience similar historical and social conditions

35
Q

immigrant paradox

A

the finding that, although low socioeconomic status usually predicts poor health, this is not true for some ethnic groups, such as hispanics, in the US.

36
Q

massification (transform a product or service)

A

the transformation of a product or service that was once only available to the wealthy such that is becomes accessible to everyone. applied to education and health, it is the idea that college can benefit everyone