Chapter 33: Bacterial Infections: DNA replication, Transcription, Translation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 33: Bacterial Infections: DNA replication, Transcription, Translation Deck (31)
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1

-Floxacins MOA and clinical application

These are the Quinolones

Inhibit bacterial type II topoisomerases ...inhibits DNA gyrase in Gram -

Gram Negative Infections

2

How do bacteria gain resistance to Quinolones (floxacins)?

Chromosomal mutations in genes for Type II topoisomerase

Alterations in membrane porins and efflux pumps

3

Rifabutin and Rifampin MOA?

Targets the B subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase - forming a stable complex with this prevents the elongation phase of transcription

BOTTOM LINE: inhibit transcription

RRRifampin --> RRRRna polymerase --> RRRRed blood Tb

4

Should Rifampin be used as a single unit?

No because resistance develops quickly

5

You should NOT use rifabutin with which other drug?

clarithromycin

6

What is the major use of rifabutin and rifampin?

Mycobacterial infections including tuberculosis

7

What class of drugs would you use for SERIOUS gram negative infections? Nemonic? MOA?

Aminoglycosides

end in "Mycin"

Bind to 16S rRNA of the 30S ribosomal subunit and mess with protein synthesis...causes mRNA misreading that will basically KILL the cell

8

Are aminoglycosides (-mycins) bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

BACTERICIDAL...THEY KILL THAT SHIZ

9

What are the most widely used aminoglycosides? (3)

Amikacin
Gentamicin
Tobramycin

10

What drugs used to treat gram negative infections have the adverse effect of ototoxicity?

aminoglycosides can cause ototoxicity (damage to hair cells)

11

Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic?

Kill vs. Stop Reproduction

12

What antibiotics could you use with Aminogylcosides?

B Lactam antibiotics

13

Three Mechanisms that cause Resistance to Aminoglycosides?

1) plasmid encoded production of enzymes that inactive aminoglycoside
2) Alteration of porins so that drug entry is impaired
3)Mutation of the drug's target on the 30S subunit

14

Spectinomycin targets the 30S subunit and is used as alternative therapy for __?

Gonorrhea

15

Tetracyclines (-cyclines) target the 30S subunit and can be used to treat --?

corynebacterium acnes
h. influenzae
vibrio cholerae
spirochetes
mycoplasma pneumoniae
chlamydia

16

Which tetracycline can be used for malaria prophylaxis and for people with KIDNEY issues?

Doxycycline

17

Which class of antimicrobial drugs can cause a bulging fontanelle, discoloration and hypoplasia of teeth, and growth stunting?

tetracyclines

18

Children under 8 should not be given which antimicrobials?

tetracyclines

19

If prescribing tetracyclines to a patient, what directions must you give about taking the medication?

Take these on an empty stomach because calcium products can interfere with absorption

20

Patient has skin or subcutaneous infection, complicated abdominal infection, or community acquired pneumonia. What bacteriostatic 30S subunit targetting drug would you prescribe?

Tigecycline

21

What is gray baby syndrome and what drug has a major risk of this?

Vomiting, flaccidity, respiratory distress, metabolic acidosis in newborns

Chloramphenicol

22

Which drug targetting the 50S subunit can be used for tricky resistance strains because of increased affinity for 50S?

Telithromycin

23

Erythromycin MOA

binds to 50S ribosomal subunit - bacteriostatic

24

How would you treat Legionella pneumophila?

erythromycin

25

Clarithromycin has increased activity against...

h influenzae

26

Azithromycin has increased activity against ....

h influenzae and moraxella catarrhalis

27

Clindamycin targets the 50S subunit and blocks peptide bond formation, but is associated with the overgrowth of ____ that can lead to colitis?

C Diff

28

What is the only class of drugs that target 50S subunit and are Bactericidal?

Streptogramins - dalfopristin/quinupristin

Pristin--> pristine--> completely KILL

29

Dalfopristin/quinupristin use? Do not use with what?

skin infections due to staph aureus or strep pyogenes

vancomycin resistant enteroccous faecium VREF

SSRIs because serotonin syndrome

30

What drug targets 50S subunit and is used against Gram POSITIVE infections?

Linezolid