Flashcards in Chapter 33: Bacterial Infections: DNA replication, Transcription, Translation Deck (31)
-Floxacins MOA and clinical application
These are the Quinolones
Inhibit bacterial type II topoisomerases ...inhibits DNA gyrase in Gram -
Gram Negative Infections
How do bacteria gain resistance to Quinolones (floxacins)?
Chromosomal mutations in genes for Type II topoisomerase
Alterations in membrane porins and efflux pumps
Rifabutin and Rifampin MOA?
Targets the B subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase - forming a stable complex with this prevents the elongation phase of transcription
BOTTOM LINE: inhibit transcription
RRRifampin --> RRRRna polymerase --> RRRRed blood Tb
Should Rifampin be used as a single unit?
No because resistance develops quickly
You should NOT use rifabutin with which other drug?
What is the major use of rifabutin and rifampin?
Mycobacterial infections including tuberculosis
What class of drugs would you use for SERIOUS gram negative infections? Nemonic? MOA?
end in "Mycin"
Bind to 16S rRNA of the 30S ribosomal subunit and mess with protein synthesis...causes mRNA misreading that will basically KILL the cell
Are aminoglycosides (-mycins) bactericidal or bacteriostatic?
BACTERICIDAL...THEY KILL THAT SHIZ
What are the most widely used aminoglycosides? (3)
What drugs used to treat gram negative infections have the adverse effect of ototoxicity?
aminoglycosides can cause ototoxicity (damage to hair cells)
Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic?
Kill vs. Stop Reproduction
What antibiotics could you use with Aminogylcosides?
B Lactam antibiotics
Three Mechanisms that cause Resistance to Aminoglycosides?
1) plasmid encoded production of enzymes that inactive aminoglycoside
2) Alteration of porins so that drug entry is impaired
3)Mutation of the drug's target on the 30S subunit
Spectinomycin targets the 30S subunit and is used as alternative therapy for __?
Tetracyclines (-cyclines) target the 30S subunit and can be used to treat --?
Which tetracycline can be used for malaria prophylaxis and for people with KIDNEY issues?
Which class of antimicrobial drugs can cause a bulging fontanelle, discoloration and hypoplasia of teeth, and growth stunting?
Children under 8 should not be given which antimicrobials?
If prescribing tetracyclines to a patient, what directions must you give about taking the medication?
Take these on an empty stomach because calcium products can interfere with absorption
Patient has skin or subcutaneous infection, complicated abdominal infection, or community acquired pneumonia. What bacteriostatic 30S subunit targetting drug would you prescribe?
What is gray baby syndrome and what drug has a major risk of this?
Vomiting, flaccidity, respiratory distress, metabolic acidosis in newborns
Which drug targetting the 50S subunit can be used for tricky resistance strains because of increased affinity for 50S?
binds to 50S ribosomal subunit - bacteriostatic
How would you treat Legionella pneumophila?
Clarithromycin has increased activity against...
Azithromycin has increased activity against ....
h influenzae and moraxella catarrhalis
Clindamycin targets the 50S subunit and blocks peptide bond formation, but is associated with the overgrowth of ____ that can lead to colitis?
What is the only class of drugs that target 50S subunit and are Bactericidal?
Streptogramins - dalfopristin/quinupristin
Pristin--> pristine--> completely KILL
Dalfopristin/quinupristin use? Do not use with what?
skin infections due to staph aureus or strep pyogenes
vancomycin resistant enteroccous faecium VREF
SSRIs because serotonin syndrome