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Flashcards in chapter 4 5 6 7 Deck (129):
1

List, in order, the list of how life is organized from cell to organ systems

cells
tissue
organs
organ system

2

group of cells of a similar type that work together to serve a common function

tissues

3

covers body surfaces, lines body cavities and organs, and forms glands

epithelial

4

covers skin

epithelial

5

provides body and its organs with protection and support serves as storage site for fat; plays role in immunity

connective tissue

6

two types of connective tissue

connective tissue proper
specialized connective tissue

7

blood, bone, cartilage, adipose tissue

connective

8

responsible for body movement and movement of substances through the body

muscle

9

skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

muscle tissue

10

conducts nerve impulses from one part of the body to another

nervous tissue

11

brain, spinal cord, and nerves

nervous tissue

12

Indicate the most abundant and widely distributed type of tissue

connective tissue

13

3 basic components of all connective tissues

ground substance, fibers, and cells

14

List the 2 categories of connective tissues

connective tissue proper
specialized connective tissue

15

example of connective tissue proper

loose CT, adipose CT, dense CT

16

example of specialized connective tissue

blood bone cartilage

17

3 types of muscle tissue

skeletal cardiac smooth

18

attached to bones

skeletal

19

in walls of hollow organs

smooth

20

only found in heart

cardiac

21

moves body

skeletal

22

responsible for pumping blood to the rest of the body

cardiac

23

propels substances or objects through internal passageways

smooth

24

voluntary

skeletal

25

involuntary

smooth and cardiac

26

location of the nervous tissue

brain spinal cord and nerves

27

List the 11 organ systems in the human body.

integumentary
skeletal
muscular
nervous
endocrine
cardiovascular
lymphatic
respiratory
digestive
urinary
reproductive

28

consists of skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands

integumentary system

29

functions of integumentary system

protection
temperature regulation
produces vitamin D
contains senses

30

3 layers of skin

epidermis
dermis
hypodermis

31

outermost layer

epidermis

32

forms a protective barrier against environmental hazards

epidermis

33

in the epidermis what is there a lot of

mitosis-----bottom layer of cells

34

much thicker than epidermis and is primarily connective tissue

dermis

35

contains blood vessels, hair follicles, oil glands, sweat glands, sensory structures, and nerve endings

dermis

36

below dermis

hypodermis

37

is mostly fat

hypodermis

38

Explain how part of the skin is dead yet we still make more.

bottom layer of cells---lots of mitosis

39

function of hypodermis

cushion, insulation

40

List and describe the 2 factors that produce skin color.

melanin and circulation

41

Describe the physiological function of tanning

increase production of melanin to radiation-protective

42

ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment

homeostasis

43

List the 2 organ systems that maintain homeostasis in the human body.

nervous and endocrine

44

Describe what happens when homeostasis fails.

illness or death. ex. diabetes

45

measures to reverse changes back to "normal"

negative feedback mechanisms

46

examples of negative feedback mechanisms

blood glucose, body temp, blood pH

47

List the 6 functions of bones.

support
movement
protection
storage of minerals
storage of fat
blood cell formation

48

List some examples of bones used for protection.

skull, sternum, ribs

49

What minerals are stored in bones?

calcium and phosphorus

50

Where are blood cells formed?

in bone marrow

51

on outside of all bones and is dense

compact bone

52

in flat bones and ends of long bones

spongy bone

53

filled with red bone marrow and where blood cells are made

spongy bone

54

latticework of bony plates

spongy bone

55

spongy bone is filled with this and it is where rbc are made

red bone marrow

56

for fat storage

yellow bone marrow

57

Explain why bone is a living tissue

has many cells-osteocytes and lots of blood vessels

58

Describe how our bony skeleton develops.

first is cartilage-flexible and grows quickly. then is replaced with bone

59

allows bone growth and is stimulated by growth hormone and sex hormones

growth plate

60

what is the fate of growth plates

become bone and there is no more growth

61

the process of continuously recycling and renewing

bone remodeling

62

Describe what influences bone remodeling.

hormonal, exercise , and nutrition

63

how many bones do we have

206

64

80 bones

axial

65

126 bones

appendicular

66

pectoral girdle (scapular-2 and clavicle-2)
upper limbs (60)
pelvic bone (2)
lower limbs (60)

appendicular

67

skull (22)
hyoid bone (1)
auditory ossicles (6)
vertebral column (26)
thoracic cage (25)

axial

68

membranous areas between cranial bones in infantile skull

frontanels

69

function of frontanels

compression of skull to pass through birth canal and skull to accommodate growing brain

70

places where bones meet

joints

71

three types of movement allowed in joints

no movement (sutures)
slight movement (between vertebrae)
free movement (synovial joints)

72

five functions of skeletal muscles

movement
posture
support internal organs
move blood and lymph
generates heart

73

how many skeletal muscles do we have

more than 600

74

largest muscle

gluteous maximus

75

longest

sartorius

76

strongest

masseter, heart, soleus, gluteus maximus

77

most flexible

tongue

78

most active

eye muscle

79

Indicate the function of the nervous system.

integrates and coordinates all the bodys varied activities

80

what are the two types of specialized cells in the nervous system

neurons and neuroglial

81

example of neurons

generate and transmit messages

82

example of neuroglial

support and protect neurons

83

list 3 categories of neurons

sensory
motor
interneurons

84

conduct information toward brain and spinal cord

sensory neurons

85

carry information away from brain and spinal cord to an effector

motor neurons

86

integrate and interpret sensory signals

interneurons

87

what are two possible effectors

muscles or glands

88

most numerous of the neurons

interneurons

89

3 main components of a neuron

cell body
axon
dendrites

90

has normal organelles, nucleus, etc

cell body

91

many short, branching projections; receive signals from other cells

dendrites

92

single long extension; carries messages away from cell body to either another cell or to an effector

axon

93

action potential

nerve impulse

94

how does a nerve impulse occur

electrochemical signal causes from Na+ and K+ crossing the neurons membrane to go into and out of the cell

95

chemicals that cause an impulse to move from cell to cell

neurotransmitter

96

junction between a neuron and another cell

synapse

97

4 neurotransmitters

acetylcholine
serotonin
norepinephrine
dopamine

98

triggers skeletal muscle contraction

acetylcholine

99

promotes sense of well being

serotonin

100

energizing good feeling

norepinephrine

101

helps regulate emotions and control complex movement

dopamine

102

List 3 different diseases that are caused by neurotransmitter imbalances

depression, parkinson disease, ADHD

103

neurotransmitter than balances out depression

serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (decrease)

104

neurotransmitter than balances out parkinson disease

decrease dopamine

105

neurotransmitter than balances out ADHD

decrease norepinephrine and dopamine

106

Name the 2 major divisions of the nervous system

central and peripheral nervous system

107

what is associated with central NS

brain and spinal cord

108

what is associated with peripheral NS

nerves

109

List the 2 major functional divisions of the PNS

somatic NS and autonomic NS

110

directs voluntary movements

somatic NS

111

regulates involuntary bodily activities

autonomic NS

112

List the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system

SYMPATHETIC-FIGHT OR FLIGHT
PARASYMPATHETIC- REST AND DIGEST

113

List the 3 ways in which the CNS is protected.

bone, membranes, fluid cushion

114

3 meninges

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

115

where is the cerebrospinal fluid located

between layers of meninges

116

what are the functions of the cerebrospinal fluid

shock absorption
support
nourishment and waste removal

117

serves as the bodys central command center, coordinating, and regulating the bodys other systems

brain

118

6 major parts of the brain

cerebrum
thalamus
hypothalamus
cerebellum
brain stem
limbic system

119

cerebrum

largest part of the brain

120

higher level of thinking, interpreting sensations, language, decision making, creativity, memory

cerebrum

121

relays information to appropriate higher brain centers

thalamus

122

controls heart rate, breathing rate, body temp, food intake, center for emotions

hypothalamus

123

coordinate voluntary movement with input from joints, muscles, eyes and inner ears

cerebellum

124

consists of medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain

brain stem

125

helps to produce emotions and memory

limbic system

126

2 functions of the spinal cord

conduct messages between brain and body
serves as a reflex center

127

automatic response to a stimulus

reflex

128

how many spinal nerves are there

31

129

how many cranial nerves are there

12