chapter 8-13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 8-13 Deck (159):
1

touch, pressure, hearing, equilibrium

mechanoreceptors

2

detect changes in temp

thermoreceptors

3

detect changes in light intensity

photoreceptors

4

smell and taste

chemoreceptors

5

respond to physical or chemical damage to tissues

pain receptors

6

Give examples of internal stimuli that receptors can detect.

blood pressure, hunger, thirst

7

Give several examples of general senses

touch, pressure, vibration

8

three layers of the eyeball

outer
middle
inner

9

tough white of eye

sclera

10

protection and attachment to eye muscles

sclera

11

transparent front of eye

cornea

12

function: window of the eye

cornea

13

contains blood vessels to supply chemicals and O2 to tissues of the eye

choroid

14

color portion of the eye; contains smooth muscle

iris

15

function: regulates amount of light entering eye

iris

16

opening in center of iris

pupil

17

send signal to brain via optic nerve

retina

18

for vision in dim light and black and white vision

rods

19

for color vision

cones

20

transparent, elastic, roundish structure behind iris and pupil

lens

21

function: changes shape to allow for focusing

lens

22

where are rods and cones found

in the retina

23

occurs when lens becomes cloudy or opaque

cataracts

24

the receiver

outer ear

25

the amplifier

middle ear

26

the transmitter

inner ear

27

gathers sound and channels it

pinna

28

sound is channel from pinna to

external auditory canal

29

vibrates with sound waves and transfers these vibrations to middle ear

tympanic membrane

30

3 bones in the middle ear that picks up sound vibrations from tympanic membrane

malleus, incus, stapes

31

fluid in cochlea (in inner ear)

oval window

32

eustachian tube

auditory tube

33

function is to equalize pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane

auditory tube

34

hearing

cochlea

35

balance and equilibrium

vestibular apparatus

36

eardrum

tympanic membrane

37

water trapped in ear canal and grows bacteria

swimmer ear

38

usually begins with infection of nose and throat

middle ear

39

why are middle ear infections more common in children

straighter and shorter auditory tubes

40

What is the scientific term for smell

olfactory receptors

41

Explain where olfactory receptors are and what stimulates them

nasal cavity; odor molecules (chemicals)

42

2 locations where olfactory messages are sent by the receptors

limbic system and cerebrum

43

connects smell to emotions and memory

limbic system

44

interprets smells

cerebrum

45

detect chemicals dissolved in saliva and sends info to brain

taste buds

46

how long do taste buds last

10 days

47

list 5 primary tastes

sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami

48

significance of taste of bitter

frequent poison and unpleasant taste

49

3 major functions of blood

transportation
protection
regulation

50

nutrients, gases, and hormones to cells and of wastes to be excreted

transportation

51

WBC against disease causing organisms;
platelets against excessive bloodless

protection

52

body temperature throughout body

regulation

53

main component of plasma

92% h2o

54

all formed elements of blood are made where

in red bone marrow by stem cells

55

thrombocytes; fx: blood clotting

platelets

56

leukocytes; fx: remove waste and toxins

wbc

57

erythrocytes; fx: pick up O2 in lungs and carry it to body cells

rbc

58

how many different types of wbc are there

5

59

Explain how and why white blood cells leave blood vessels

many squeeze out of blood vessels to site of infection, tissue damages, or inflammation

60

Identify the most numerous type of blood cell in our body

rbc

61

Explain the function of hemoglobin

picks up O2 in lungs and carry it to body cells

62

Explain the function of iron in rbc

binds with O2

63

Describe where old & damaged red blood cells go “to die”

from circ in liver and spleen

64

bloods ability to carry O2 is reduced

anemia

65

symptoms of anemia

fatigue, headaches, dizziness

66

most common cause of anemia

iron

67

viral disease spread by saliva

infectious mononucleosis

68

symptoms of infectious mononucleosis

extreme fatigue, fever, chills

69

what is leukemia

cancer of wbc

70

why is leukemia so harmful

uncontrolled multiplication

71

chemical messengers that head to target cells with specific receptors

hormones

72

Where are hormones made

endocrine cells

73

how do hormones get to their target cells?

diffuse into bloodstream

74

What is the function of the endocrine system?

regulate and coordinate other body systems and thus maintain homeostasis

75

What other system does the same basic function as the endocrine system?

nervous system

76

is made up of 2 lobes (anterior and posterior) and releases different hormones

pituitary

77

connected to pituitary and controls pituitary hormones

hypothalamus

78

major endocrine organs that secrete hormones

parathyroid, adrenal, pineal, thyroid, pancreas??

79

stimulates growth-esp in bones, muscles, and cartilage

growth hormone

80

stimulates mammary glands to produce milk

prolactin hormone

81

stimulates adrenal cortex hormones

adrenocorticotropic

82

stimulates thyroid hormone

thyroid stimulating hormone

83

promotes gamete development in ovaries/testes

follicle stimulating hormone

84

causes ovulation; stimulates sex hormones in ovaries/testes

luteinizing hormone

85

Explain where the 2 hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary come from

hypothalamus

86

labor contractions; stimulates milk ejection

oxytocin

87

conserve h2o by decreasing urine output

antidiuretic hormone

88

2 hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary

oxytocin and antidiuretic

89

regulates metabolic rate and heat production

T3 and T4

90

decrease calcium in blood

calcitonin

91

3 thyroid glands

T3 and T4 and calctonin

92

Explain what causes a goiter and how it is commonly avoided

decrease in iodine
UNCOMMON- iodized salt

93

increase calcium in blood

parathyroid hormone

94

antagonist to calcitonin

parathyroid hormone

95

gonadocorticoids, mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids

adrenal cortex

96

are male and female sex hormones

gonadocorticoids

97

affect mineral homeostasis and water balance

mineralocorticoids

98

affect glucose levels; inhibits inflammatory response

glucocorticoids

99

2 hormones of adrenal medulla

epinephrine and norepinephrine

100

function: fight or flight response

epinephrine and norepinephrine

101

What part of the nervous system do epinephrine and norepinephrine work with?

sympathetic nervous system

102

Explain how the pancreas is both exocrine and endocrine in function

digestive enzymes (exocrine)
hormones (endocrine)

103

2 hormones of the pancreas

glucagon and insulin

104

increase blood glucose

glucagon

105

decrease blood glucose

insulin

106

increase in blood glucose because either there was a decrease in insulin function or increase in insulin function

diabetes mellitus

107

secretes hormones that play important role in immunity by maturing white blood cells used for immunity (T cells)

thymus gland

108

thymus gland is WHAT in infants

larger in infants and decreases is size as we age

109

hormone in pineal gland

melatonin

110

establishes biological rhythms and triggers sleep

melatonin

111

List the 2 major components of the cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

112

What the basic function of the cardiovascular system?

our bodys transportation network

113

List the blood vessels, in order, within the body’s circuit

heart-arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins-heart

114

tubes that transport blood away from heart

arteries

115

exchange of materials between blood and body cells

capillaries

116

tubes that return blood back to heart

veins

117

Explain the significance of elastic walls in arteries

stretch with heart pumping, help maintain BP

118

weakness in artery wall- bulges- may enlarge and burst- hemorrhage

aneurysm

119

Describe the structure of a capillary and its significance.

very thin to allow materials through easily and quickly

120

How much does the heart beat?

72 times per minute

121

How much blood does heart pump?

5 liters per minute

122

3 layers of the heart

pericardium
myocardium
endocardium

123

thick fibrous sac with fluid
func: protection and decrease friction

pericardium

124

mostly cardiac muscle; thick layer
func: pumping of heart

myocardium

125

thin, smooth lining
func: decrease fricition

endocardium

126

pumps blood to lungs and blood picks up O2 and drop off CO2 in lungs

right side of heart

127

pumps blood to rest of body and blood drops off 02 to body cells and picks up O2

left side of heart

128

4 chambers of the heart

2 atria and 2 ventricles

129

upper smaller chambers, thinner walls

2 atria

130

receiving chambers for blood returning to the heart

2 atria

131

lower larger chambers; thick muscular walls

2 ventricles

132

main pumps of the heart- pushes blood out of heart

2 ventricles

133

3 circuits of blood flow

pulmonary
systemic
coronary

134

heart-lungs-heart

pulmonary

135

heart-body tissues-heart

systemic

136

heart-heart muscle cells-heart

coronary

137

surplus interstital fluid

lymph

138

similar to blood vessels but pick up lymph and carry it back to blood

lymphatic vessels

139

4 lymphoid tissues and organs

lymph nodes
thymus
tonsils
spleen

140

filter and clean lymph as it returns back to blood

lymph nodes

141

in throat and help protect against disease organisms that are inhaled or swallowed

tonsils

142

filters and cleans blood

spleen

143

return excess interstitial fluid to bloodstream
transport products of fat digestion from the small intestine to the blood stream
help defend against disease causing organisms

functions of lymphatic system

144

Describe the function of the body’s defense system

targets pathogens

145

organisms that cause disease or infection

pathogens

146

List several types of organisms that can be pathogens

bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi

147

List the 3 major lines of defense – in order

keep the foreign organisms or molecules out of the body
attack any foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body.
destroy a specific type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body

148

List several examples of physical and chemical barriers

tears, skin, stomach, saliva

149

4 ways in which the body attacks any foreign organisms, molecules, or cancer cells inside the body

defensive cells
defensive proteins
inflammation
fever

150

phagocytes/wbc's- to engulf organisms

defensive cells

151

two examples of defensive proteins

interferon (antiviral), complement proteins (cause bacteria to burst, enhance phagocytosis, etc)

152

blood vessels widen- redness, heat

inflammation

153

slows growth of bacteria; stimulates body defense response

fever

154

What is the function of complement proteins?

cause bacteria to burst, enhance phagocytosis, etc

155

redness, heat

blood vessels widen

156

swelling and pain

capillaries become more permeable

157

destroys a specific type of foreign organism or molecule or cancer cell inside the body

immune system

158

introduction of harmless form of the pathogen into body

vaccine

159

what does a vaccine do

immune response with memory