chapter 20 and 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 20 and 21 Deck (66):
1

certain segments of DNA

genes

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different forms of a gene

alleles

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one that has the ability to mask the expression of another

dominant allele

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one whose expression is masked by the dominant allele for the same trait

recessive allele

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an organism that has 2 identical alleles

homozygous

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organism that has 2 different alleles

heterzygous

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precise set of alleles a person possess for a given trait

genotype

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observable physical trait or traits

phenotype

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discovered laws of heredity

mendelian genetics

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letters

genotype

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individuals observable traits - height, eye color, blood type

phenotype

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chart showing the genetic connections between individuals in a family

pedigrees

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any chromosomes other than a sex chromosome

autosome

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normal allele (a) is recessive and those with the alleles AA or Aa have the disorder

autosomal dominant

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normal allele (A) is dominant and only those with the alleles aa have the disorder

autosomal recessive

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Aa appear normal but can have a child with the disorder

carriers

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marfan syndrome

autosomal dominant disorder

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abnormal connective tissue

marfan syndrome

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weakened brittle bones

osteogensis imperfecta

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osteogensis imperfecta

autosomal dominant disorder

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neurological disease

huntington disease

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high cholesterol

familial cholesterolemia

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huntington disease

autosomal dominant disorder

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huntington disease

autosomal dominant

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premature aging

progeria

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progeria

autosomal dominant

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very thick mucus in bronchial tubes and pancreatic ducts

cystic fibrosis

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cystic fibrosis

autosomal recessive

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albinism

autosomal recessive

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sickle cell anemia

autosomal recessive

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when there are more than 2 possible for a particular trait

multiple alleles

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both expressed when both present

codominant

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shown when heterozygote has intermediate phenotype between dominant and recessive homozygous

incomplete dominance

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when a trait is controlled by 2 or more genes and each dominant allele has an additive effect to the phenotype

polygenic inheritance

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XX

female

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XY

male

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determines sex of baby

male

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has some genes on it that are unrelated to a gender

X chromosome

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carries very few genes

Y chromosome

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get 1 X chromosome and if they get recessive gene they show disorder

male

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color blindness

X-linked disorder

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muscular dystrophy

X-linked disorder

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hemophilia

X-linked disorder

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tests are available to detect or predict some genetic disorders

detecting genetic disorder

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long needle inserted into abdomen to collect some amniotic fluid with living cells floating in it

amniocentesis

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small amount of tissue containing part of the placenta is removed and analyzed for genetic abnormalities

chorionic villi sampling

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blood test in newborns routinely to screen for

pku

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may predictive genetic tests now available or being developed; blood tests

adult genetic testing

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permanent change in the sequence of bases in DNA

gene mutation

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what can gene mutations be from

change/swap in a single DNA nucleotide
inserted base
deleted base

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example of gene mutation

sickle cell anemia- just one amino acid swapped in the hemoglobin protein

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manipulation of genetic material for human purposes

genetic engineering

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recombinant DNA contains DNA from 2 or more different sources

recombinant dna

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e. coli is used to produce what

human insulin for diabetics

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why is e. coli used in recombinant DNA

using an enzyme to cut an opening into bacterial DNA and inserting a human gene into it

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used to create copies of segments of DNA quickly in a test tube

polymerase chain reaction

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what are new copies of DNA fingerprinting used for

identifying and convicting criminals
identifying bodies
paternity suits
detecting genetic disorders
even recognizing illegally poached ivory and whale meat

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genetic engineering

environmental- oil eating microbes for oil spills
livestock- vaccines for animals
pharmaceuticals- edible vaccines for hepatitis B- in bananas
agriculture- higher yields

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used to cure genetic diseases

gene therapy

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method of gene therapy

gene is inserted into cells that have been removed and then returned to the body

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diseases of gene therapy

SCID, AIDS, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis

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study of our complete genetic makeup

genomics

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how long did it take for genomics

13 yr effort completed in 2003

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whats the purpose of genomics

discovered the order of the base pairs in human DNA

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what did genomics determine

humans have 20,000-25,000 genes that code for proteins

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base pairs of rna

adenine-uracil
cytosine-guanine