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Flashcards in chapter 1 Deck (122):
1

list and describe the seven characteristics of life

contain nucleic acids, proteins, carbs, and lipids
composed of cells
grow and reproduce
use energy and raw materials
respond to environment
maintain homeostasis
adaptive traits

2

smallest unit of life

cells

3

relatively constant and self-correcting internal environment

homeostasis

4

what is the significance of adaptive traits in living organisms

helps increase survival

5

all living organisms are classified

taxonomy

6

how are living organisms classified

greatest similarity are grouped together

7

the classification system categories, in order

domain
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species (interbreeding individuals)

8

list the 3 domains

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

9

list the 4 kingdoms within the domain eukarya

protists
fungi
plants
animals

10

list the classification of humans in order

domain: eukarya
kingdom: animals
phylum: chordates
class: mammals
order: primates
family: hominids
genus: homo
species: homo sapiens

11

homo sapiens means

man who knows

12

list the levels of biological organization


molecules- h2o
cell
tissue-cardiac tissue
organ-heart
organ system-cardiac system
individual- one person
population- biology 107 class
community-what happens in the commons
ecosystem-woods (trees, water, dirt, animals, etc)
biosphere-earths crust

13

what is the scientific method used for

gathering information and acquiring knowledge

14

steps used in the scientific method

observe and ask a question
form testable hypothesis
test experiment and collect data
draw conclusions
repeat as needed to get answers
possibly form theory

15

possible explanation/prediction to question

hypothesis

16

well supported and wide ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe

theory

17

explain the importance of having a controlled group

goes through all the steps of the experiment but lacks factor being tested

18

experimental/independent variable

factor being tested

19

responding/dependent variable

change/effect that occurs because of experimental variable

20

all matter is composed of an

an element

21

how many elements are there

118

22

how many elements are natural

98

23

6 most common elements found in the body

O, C, H, N, Ca, P

24

65% of the body is WHAT? 18% is WHAT

Oxygen; carbon

25

structure of an atom

smallest unit of an element and contains subatomic particles

26

in an atom

the nucleus contains protons and neutrons. electrons move around nucleus

27

energy levels around the nucleus are called

shells

28

1 st shell

2 e-

29

2 nd shell

8 e-

30

charge of proton

+

31

charge of neutron

0

32

charge of electron

-

33

what is charge of a complete atom

0; stable

34

what are the maximum numbers of electrons allowed in the first 2 shells

overall 10e-

35

what is the situation when the outer shell is not filled to its maximum capacity

electrons receive, donate, or share electrons with other atoms to empty or fill outer shell

36

atoms atomic number determined by

number of protons

37

atoms atomic weight determined by

number of protons and number of neutrons

38

atoms of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons

isotopes

39

how do numbers of atomic components change in an isotope

same elements with different number of neutrons

40

some isotopes are unstable and are

radioisotopes

41

dangerous example of radioisotopes

skin cancer, birth defects

42

good examples of radioisotopes

X-rays, kill cancer cells

43

2 or more atoms bound to each other

molecule

44

a molecule with atoms of at least 2 different elements bonding

compound

45

example of a molecule

o2

46

example of a compound

h2o

47

3 types of chemical bonds

covalent ionic hydrogen

48

atoms share e- to complete outer shell

covalent

49

results with giving and receiving e-

ionic bonds

50

very weak bond/easily broken

hydrogen

51

difference between an ionic and covalent bond

covalent- atom sharing electrons
ionic-happens when oppositely charged ions attract

52

share 1 pair of e-

single bond

53

share 2 pair of e-

double bond

54

share 3 pair of e-

triple bond

55

an atom or group of atoms that carries either a positive or negative charge

ion

56

how is an ion formed

transfer of electrons between atoms

57

example of an ion

Na (11 electrons): 2/8/1- will donate outer e-
result: 11 protons and 10 electrons
Na +

58

where r hydrogen bonds found

H2O molecules

59

what is different about hydrogen bonds

between DNA strands

60

important of the 4 properties of water

solvent
bodys main transport medium
helps prevent dramatic changes in body temp
high heat of evaporation

61

anything that releases H+ when placed in H2O

acid

62

example of an acid

lemon juice, vinegar

63

anything that releases OH- when placed in H2O

base

64

what does the pH scale measure

conc of acids and bases

65

what is the range of the pH scale

0-14

66

neural pH

7.0

67

pH acid

anything less than 7.0

68

pH base

anything great than ph 7.0

69

chemicals that keep pH within normal limits

buffers

70

pH of blood

7.4

71

condition when pH level is

acidosis

72

condition when pH level is >7.45

alkalosis

73

2 buffers that are commonly used in the body

carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions

74

4 groups of polymers/macromolecules found in living things and their monomers

carbs- monosaccarides
lipids- fatty acids and glycerol
proteins-amino acids
nucleic acid-nucleotides

75

what is removed as a by-product during the formation of a polymer

h2o molecule is lost

76

describe how polymers are formed

bond is formed between monomers and a h2o molecule is lost

77

describe how polymers are broken down

h2o is used to break the bond between monomers

78

what is the most significant function of carbs

provide fuel (energy) for the body

79

basic chemical structure /ratio of a carb

C,H, and O (1:2:1)

80

3 types of carbs, as classified by size

monosaccarides
oligosaccharides
polysaccharides

81

3 best known monosaccharides and their chemical formula

glucose- C6H12O6
fructose- C6H12O6
galactose- C6H12O6

82

define disaccharide

sugars; 2 monosaccharides

83

how is a disaccharide formed

2 monosaccharides bonded

84

list 3 oligosaccharides/disaccharides

sucrose, maltose, lactose

85

3 common polysaccharides and their function

starch- storage polysaccharide in plant
glycogen- storage polysaccharide in animals
cellulose- makes up part of plant cell walls

86

3 examples of lipids that are important to humans

triglycerides
phospholipids
steroids

87

basic chemical components of a triglyceride

3 fatty acids and glycerol (ratio of 3:1)

88

4 functions of triglycerides

long term energy storage, cushion, insulation, means of absorbing lipid-soluble and vitamins

89

difference between saturated and unsaturated and an example

saturated-no double bonds between carbons in animal fats (ex. butter)
unsaturated- double bonds in carbon chain in veggie oil (ex. olive oil)

90

basic chemical components of a phosphate

two fatty acids and a phosphate group

91

structure of a phospholipid

head of molecule is hydrophilic
tail is hydrophobic

92

how are phospholipids arranged in a cell membrane

arrange themselves in double layer in presence of h2o. also are arranged this way is because 1 side attracted to h2o and 1 side repels h2o

93

examples of steroids found in living things

chloesterol, estrogen, and testosterone

94

polymers

proteins

95

a chain of a few amino acids

peptide

96

chain of > 10 amino acids

polypeptide

97

at least 50 amino acids bonded

protein

98

how many different amino acids are there

20

99

4 functions of proteins

structural support
transport
movement
regulation of chemical reactions

100

list and describe 4 shapes of proteins

primary-amino acid sequence
secondary- how protein coils or folds
tertiary- 3d folding; held with bonds
quaternary- 1 polypeptide chain bonded together

101

what causes denaturalization

high temps or changes in pH

102

permanent disruption of protein structure/shape -> loss of function

denaturation

103

what happens to form a prion

changes in 2 degree structure of protein in neuron

104

example of a prion disease

creutzfeldt-jakob disease

105

name the function of enzymes

speeds up chemical reactions

106

basic characteristics of enzymes

not affected by reactions and is reused
specific in their actions and reactions they work with
often end in "ase" and named for their substrate

107

what is the function of cofactors? example?

sometimes need helpers
ex. vitamins, zinc, iron

108

describe how many enzymes are named

ase

109

3 components of a nucleotide

phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogen base

110

basic structure and function of dna

genectic info in cells- in chromosomes
made up of twisted double strands held together by H bonds

111

basic structure and function of rna

converts genetic info in dan into proteins
single stranded

112

basic structure and function of atp

universal energy source for cells
adenine and ribose; 3 phosphate groups

113

what are the abbreviations for dna

deoxyribonucleic acid

114

what are the abbreviations for rna

ribonucleic acid

115

what are the abbreviations for atp

adenosine triphosphate

116

2 differences in structure between dna and rna

dna- twisted double strands; 4 nitrogen bases= cytosine, thymine, guanine, adenine
ran-single stranded; 4 nitrogen bases=cytosine, uracil, guanine, adenine

117

how is energy released from atp

breaking of bond between phosphates

118

what enzymes acts on

substrate

119

end result of chemical reaction

product

120

when ion donates electron

positive

121

when ion receives electron

negative

122

example of bases

tums, baking soda, ammonia