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Flashcards in FINAL CHAPTER TEST Deck (141):
1

Explain the significance of oxygen

oxygen makes ATP energy through cellular respiration

2

significance of CO2

body disposes CO2

3

process of respiration

breathe O2 in-transfer to RBC-RBC carry body cells- RBC drops ofF o2
blood picks up CO2 from body cells- blood carries CO2 back to lungs- breathe out CO2

4

2 functions of the respiratory system

provide body with O2
dispose of CO2

5

List the structures that air passes through in the respiratory system, in order

nose/mouth, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, alveoli in lungs

6

filters, warms, and moistens air

upper respiratory system

7

upper respiratory structures

nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx

8

move air to gas exchange surface and gas exchange

lower respiratory system

9

structures in lower respiratory system

trachea, bronchial tree, lungs

10

scientific name for windpipe

trachea

11

scientific name for voice box

larynx

12

scientific name for throat

pharynx

13

flap of cartilage which covers airway when swallowing

epiglottis

14

why does trachea have rings

to hold it open

15

thin walled round chamber that is surrounded by many capillaries for gas exchange in and out

alveoli

16

provides huge surface area for gas exchange

alveoli

17

2 respiratory muscles

intercostal muscles and diaphragm

18

muscles between ribs

intercostal muscle

19

muscle under lungs

diaphragm

20

viral- many different viruses can cause; no antibiotics

common cold

21

viral-no antibiotics; no severe than colds

flu

22

fluid accumulates in alveoli and bronchioles swell

pneumonia

23

bacterial infection- antibiotic treatment; can cause rheumatic fever or kidney problems

strep throat

24

thick, sticky mucus- clogs air passageways and traps bacteria

cystic fibrosis

25

inflammation of mucous membranes of bronchi- excess mucus

bronchitis

26

walls of alveoli break down and eventually thicken- decrease surface area for gas exchange

emphysema

27

commonly caused by smoking

emphysema

28

progressively worsening case of a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

COPD

29

caused by smoking- inhaling carcinogens- mutates cells to cancer

lung cancer

30

What type of microorganism causes the common cold and the flu

viral

31

Explain why it is inappropriate to take an antibiotic for the common cold or flu

only for bacterial infections

32

Explain why it is important to treat strep throat.

cause rheumatic fever or kidney problems

33

How does someone acquire cystic fibrosis

inherited disease

34

What 3 respiratory disorders listed are most commonly caused by smoking

COPD, lung cancer, emphysema

35

List the organs that compose the gastrointestinal tract, in order

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus

36

List the 4 digestive accessory organs

salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gall bladder

37

List the 3 functions of the mouth

mechanical and chemical digestion
monitors food quality
moistens and manipulates food so it can be swallowed

38

how many teeth do humans have

32

39

mechanical breakdown of food

teeth

40

how many salivary glands do we have

3 pairs

41

moistens and binds food

saliva

42

What begins digestion by the saliva?

enzymes- sugar starches

43

4 functions of the tongue

taste
speech
manipulation of food and mix with saliva
begins swallowing

44

what is the tongue made of

muscle

45

store food and regulate release of food to small intestine
liquefy food
carry out initial digestion of proteins via enzymes

stomach

46

ph of stomach

7.4

47

Name two substances that can be absorbed through the stomach

alcohol and aspirin

48

functions: chemical digestion and absorption

small intestine

49

List the 3 major macromolecules that we chemically digest

carbohydrates, proteins, and fat

50

7 substances that the stomach absorbs

monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, water, ions, vitamins, and minerals

51

Identify the primary site/organ of absorption of nutrients in the body

small intestine

52

largest region of large intestine

colon

53

absorbs h2o and ions
stores, forms, and expels feces

large intestine

54

undigested food, cells, water, mucus, and millions of bacteria

feces

55

secretes enzymes to digest most nutrients

function of pancreas

56

Describe the location where the pancreatic enzymes are released

into the first part of small intestine

57

produce bile
control glucose via glycogen metabolism
storage of iron and some vitamins
control lipid metabolism
remove toxins from blood

function of liver

58

physically breaks down fats for increase enzyme action

bile

59

secretes into the gall bladder and small intestine

bile

60

muscular same with sphincters at each end

stomach

61

long twisted tube

small intestine

62

final tube

large intestine

63

last portion of large intestine

rectum

64

hole to expel feces

anus

65

pear shaped muscular sac

gall bladder

66

stores and releases bile into small intestine

gall bladder

67

when is the gall bladder needed

response to increase fats entering small intestine

68

List the 4 systems responsible for eliminating waste

integumentary system
respiratory system
digestive system
urinary system

69

what begins digestion in the stomach

protein

70

explain what the pH status is in the stomach

hydrochloric

71

where does the hydrochloric acid come from

acid in the stomach

72

eliminates heat, h2o, salt

integumentary system

73

eliminates co2, h20, heat

respiratory system

74

eliminates solid wastes

digestive system

75

eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes, h2o, excess ions

urinary system

76

Describe where the urinary system wastes come from

normal breakdown of proteins, nucleic acids and from muscle metabolism

77

4 basic organs of the urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

78

regulate amount of h2o and dissolved substances that are removed from and returned to the blood

kidneys

79

tubes connecting kidneys and bladder

ureters

80

temporarily stores urine

urinary bladder

81

tube that transports urine out of body

urethra

82

removes wastes from body
regulate blood volume and BP
stimulate production of RBCs
regulate concentrations of solutes in plasma
helps stabilize blood pH
promote the bodys use of calcium and phosphorus

kidneys

83

Explain how kidney functions influence blood volume and blood pressure

adjusting h2p and salt excretion

84

Explain how kidney functions are responsible for blood cell production

producing a hormone

85

List the 2 functions of the connective tissue coverings of the kidneys

protection and attachment

86

Name the 2 major blood vessels entering and exiting the kidneys

renal artery enters; renal vein leaves

87

Name the functional unit of the kidney

nephrons

88

Briefly explain what happens in the nephron

as blood moves through, substances are removed from and added to blood

89

Describe the processes of how the desire to urinate and actual urination occurs

bladder stretches to send a signal to brain and spinal cord; brain permits voluntary relaxation of external urethral sphincter

90

Explain how urinary tract infections are usually acquired

from bacteria traveling up urethra from outside of body

91

males urethra

8 inches

92

females urethra

1.5 inches

93

why are UTIs more common in females

shorter urethra and closer to anus

94

List the 2 gonads

testes and ovaries

95

List the 2 gametes

sperm or egg

96

2 general functions of the gonads

produce gametes and sex hormones

97

3 organs of the male duct system

epididymis
vas deferens
urethra

98

general function of the duct system

transportation, storage and maturation of sperm

99

3 accessory organs of the male

seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bulbourethral glands

100

function of the accessory organs

contribue fluid to make up semen

101

Identify the portion of the penis that is frequently surgically removed

foreskin (loosely fitting covering) around tip

102

what is it called the portion that gets removed

circumcision

103

Describe how an erection occurs

arteries entering penis dilate
erectile tissue fills with blood
veins draining blood from penis are squeezed shut so blood is trapped

104

3 regions of a sperm

head
midpiece
tail

105

aid sperm in penetrating cells around egg

head

106

motility

tail

107

provide ATP for tail

mid piece

108

a vesicle with enzymes

acrosome

109

why do sperm have mitochondria

provide ATP for tail

110

sperm production
secondary sex characteristics

function of testosterone

111

tubes that connect ovaries to uterus

oviducts

112

hollow, muscular organ

uterus

113

narrow neck of uterus

cervix

114

tube from uterus to exterior

vagina

115

cyclic changes in ovary that produce the egg

ovarian cycle

116

cyclic changes in uterine wall to prepare for a possible embryo

uterine (menstrual) cycle

117

3 components of the vulva

labia majora
labia minora
clitoris

118

transport immature egg to uterus
usual site of fertilization and early development

function of oviducts

119

List 2 ways in which immature eggs are moved along the oviducts

peristalsis and cilia

120

Name the location where fertilization usually occurs

oviducts

121

2 functions of the uterus

pregnancy and childbirth

122

2 main layers of the uterus

muscle and endometrium

123

what the muscle layer of the uterus is specifically made of and significant

smooth muscle and for contractions

124

Explain what happens to the endometrium if pregnant versus not pregnant

preg- implants in lay
not- sloughed off w menstrual cycle

125

passageways for menstrual fluids
receives penis and sperm
birth canal

vagina

126

How long is a “typical” reproductive cycle

28 days

127

what is the ovarian and menstrual cycle directed by

hormones

128

Briefly explain the “life” of an egg

beginning at puberty- one immature egg develops per month- ovulation release of an egg that is ready

129

when does ovulation occur

day 14

130

release of an egg that is ready for fertilization

ovulation

131

bleeding associated with endometrium sloughing off

menstruation 1-7 days

132

regrows and thickens

endometrium 7-28 days

133

Explain how pregnancy changes the uterine cycle

endometrium doesn't he'd

134

cut vas deferens- no sperm get out

vasectomy

135

cut oviducts to prevent egg and sperm from meeting

tubal ligation

136

estrogen and progesterone combo- stops egg from maturing and ovulating

hormonal contraception

137

list 3 birth controls

abtinence
sterilization
barrier methods

138

Describe the different forms in which hormonal contraceptives are currently available

pills, skin patch, or vaginal ring

139

device inserted in uterus; prevents fertilization and/or implantation

intrauterine device

140

List several forms of the barrier methods of birth control

male and female condoms
diaphragm

141

family planning or rhythm method

fertility awareness