Chapter 3 and 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 and 4 Deck (114):
1

compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic

pro- simpler and smaller; primarily bacteria
euk-cells of all other organisms including animals; contain organelles

2

example of prokaryotic cell

bacteria e.coli

3

example of eukaryotic cell

all other organisms including animals- human

4

2 major components of the plasma membrane

phospholipids and proteins

5

explain the unique arrangements of the phospholipids of the plasma membrane

phospholipid bilayer-hydrophilic heads (face outside the cell where theres a watery solution); hydrophobic tails-away from water

6

the locations of proteins found in plasma membrane

interspersed in bilayer; some span bilayer completely and some are attached to inner or outer surface of membrane

7

list and describe functions of the plasma membrane

maintains structural integrity of cell
regulates movement of substances into and out of cell
recognition between cells
communication between cells
sticks cells together

8

define selectively permeable

allows certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport

9

random movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

simple diffusion

10

movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration to a region of lower concentration with the aid of a membrane protein

facilitated diffusion

11

type of diffusion in which h2o moves across a membrane from a region of higher h2o concentration to a region of lower h20 concentration

osmosis

12

movement of substances across membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration with the aid of a protein carrier and energy (ATP)

active transport

13

movement when cell engulfs substance

endocytosis

14

movement when large substances leave cell

exocytosis

15

cell eating

phagocytosis

16

cell drinking

pinocytosis

17

differences between active and passive transport

passive- doesn't require energy; moves molecules with conc (high to low)
active- needs energy; moves molecules against concentration (low to high)

18

2 means of transport that requires protein carriers

facilitated diffusion and active transport

19

2 requirements of active transport

needs aid of a carrier protein and needs energy

20

difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport in regards to the direction of movement

facilitated- (high to low)
active-(low to high)

21

one with a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell

hypertonic

22

concentration of solutes is equal inside and outside the cell

isotonic

23

one with a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell

hypotonic

24

when rbc in hypertonic

h2o moves out of cell

25

when rbc in hypotonic

h2o moves into cell

26

when rbc in isotonic

h2o moves into and out of cell equally; no net movement

27

jellylike solution inside cell

cytoplasm

28

contains genetic info that is passed on from generation to generation

nucleus

29

separates the nucleus from cytoplasm

nuclear envelope

30

openings in the nuclear envelope

nuclear pores

31

region in nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is produced

nucleolus

32

primarily DNA; condenses and coils up just before cell division

chromatin

33

system of interconnecting membrane channels

endoplasmic reticulum

34

studded with ribosomes

rough er

35

function-protein synthesis

rough er

36

detoxification of alcohol and other drugs

smooth er

37

function: lipid synthesis- fats and steroids

smooth er

38

set of interconnected , flattened membranous sacs

golgi complex

39

function of the golgi complex

receives protein filled vesicles from er
modifies proteins via enzymes in golgi
produces lysosomes and vesicles
secretes substances out of cell through membrane

40

contains digestive enzymes and destroy nonfunctional organelles

lysosomes

41

made by rough er and processed in golgi

lysosomes

42

number varies with function and energy needs of cell

mitchondria

43

"powerhouse" of the cell

mitchondria

44

complex network of fibers within cytoplasm

cytoskeleton

45

3 types of cytoskeleton

microtubules
microfilaments
intermediate filaments

46

short and numerous

cilia

47

function: move cell

flagella

48

long- usually just one

flagella

49

sweep "stuff"

cilia

50

cellular respiration equation

C6H1206 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + energy

51

contraste chromatin and chromosomes

DNA within nucleus as long, thin threads- chromatin
when preparing to divide, DNA becomes highly coiled and condensed -chromosomes

52

how many chromosomes do human cells have

46 chromosomes - 23 pairs

53

mircotubules- cytoskeleton

thickest; straight hollow rods

54

microfilament- cytoskeleton

thinnest; solid rods of protein

55

intermediate filaments- cytoskeleton

helps maintain cell shape; anchor certain organelles in place

56

how do our body cells get energy

from food
Digestive system breaks complex polymers down into monomers-simple molecules absorbed- carried to our cells- some used to make ATP

57

the breakdown of glucose without O2

fermentation

58

difference between cellular respiration and fermentation

cellular- requires O2
fermentation- doesn't

59

name of C6H12O6

D-glucose

60

4 phases of cellular respiration

glycolysis
transition reaction
citric acid cycle
electron transport chain

61

where does glycolysis occur in the cell

cytoplasm

62

where does transition reaction occur in the cell

mitochondria

63

where does citric acid cycle occur in the cell

mitochondria

64

where does electron transport chain occur in the cell

mitochondria

65

total yield of ATP for cellular respiration and fermentation

c.r.- 36 ATP
fer-2 ATP glucose

66

which is more energy efficient- cellular respiration or fermentation

cellular respiration

67

how many ATP are formed throughout the process of cellular respiration

36 atp

68

during what parts of cellular respiration were they made

2 during glycolysis, 2 during citric acid cycle, 32 during ETC

69

what is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic

aerobic- oxygen is required
anaerobic- oxygen is not required

70

what happens to CO2 that is made during cellular respiration

diffused out of cells into blood and taken to lungs to be exhaled

71

since not all of glucose energy is used to make atp what happens to the rest of the energy

the rest is lost as heat

72

explain the condition in which fermentation occurs

process stops at end of glycolysis

73

where does lactic acid fermentation occur

in body

74

when does lactic acid fermentation occur

we make lactic acid in our muscles cells when theres not enough O2 to make more ATP

75

lactic acid builds up in muscles

cramping

76

when O2 is finally available

lactic acid is transported to liver and converted to continue on in the aerobic cellular respiration process

77

turner syndrome

xo

78

klinefelter syndrome

xxy

79

triple x syndrome

xxx

80

jacob syndrome

xyy

81

example of prokaryotic cell

bacteria

82

example of eukaryotic cell

all other organisms, including animals

83

2 major components of the plasma membrane

phospholipid

84

the movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration to a region of lower concentration with the aid of a membrane protein

facilitated diffusion

85

list the 2 means of transport that require a protein carrier

active and facilitated diffusion

86

explain the relationship between the rough er, golgi apparatus, and lysosomes

rough er does protein synthesis-golgi receives protein filled vesicles from er-produces lysosomes and vesicles.

87

set of interconnected, flattened membranous sacs

golgi complex

88

cellular energy is in what form

ATP

89

the purpose of cellular respiration

break down carbohydrates and sugars in order to use the energy stored in them (ATP) the energy currency of the cell-----make ATP

90

purpose of fermentation

breakdown glucose without oxygen

91

where does the carbohydrates and oxygen of cellular respiration come from

carbs from glucose
oxygen from body

92

contains genetic info that is passed on from generation to generation

nucleus

93

openings in the nuclear envelope

nuclear pores

94

allow communication between nucleus and cytoplasm

nuclear pores

95

region in nucleus where ribosomal RNA is produced

nucleolus

96

where amino acids are assembled into proteins

ribosomes

97

found in two forms:freely in cytoplasm or attached to rough er

ribosomes

98

secretes substances out of cell through membrane

golgi complex

99

made by rough er and processed in the golgi complex

lysosomes

100

contains digestive enzymes

lysosomes

101

digest ingested materials and destroy nonfunctional organelles

lysosomes

102

converts carbs to atp through cellular respiration

mitochondria

103

complex network of fibers within cytoplasm

cytoskeleton

104

when does fermentation occur

when there is no oxygen and process stops at end of glycolysis

105

nuclear division that results in identical body cells

mitosis

106

nuclear division that creates gametes

meiosis

107

cytoplasm division

cytokinesis

108

used for diagnostic purposes to check for irregularities in number or structure of chromosomes

karyotypes

109

type of nuclear division that reduces the chromosome number from diploid number to haploid number

meiosis

110

meiosis I results in what

2 daughter cells each with one set of chromosomes

111

exchange of genetic material between non sister chromatids

crossing over

112

trisomy 21

down syndrome

113

meiosis in male and results in 4 sperm

spermatogenesis

114

meiosis in female and results in 1 egg and 3 nonfunctional polar bodies

oogensis