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Flashcards in FINAL FINAL FINAL FINAL Deck (268):
1

contains nucleic acids, proteins, carbs, and lipids
composed of cells
grow and reproduce
use energy and raw materials
respond to environment
maintain homeostasis
have adaptive traits

7 characteristics of life

2

smallest unit of life

cells

3

relatively constant and self correcting internal environment

homeostasis

4

list the four kingdoms within the domain eukarya

protists fungi plants animals

5

method for gathering information and acquiring knowledge

scientific method

6

classifications of humans

domain- eukarya
kingdom- animals
phylum- chordates
class- mammals
order- primates
family- hominids
genus- homo
species- homo sapiens

7

steps in the scientific method

observe and ask a question
form hypothesis
test experiment and collect new data
draw conclusions
repeat as needed
possibly form theory

8

goes through all the steps of the experiment but lacks factor being tested

control

9

factor being tested

experimental/ independent

10

change/effect that occurs because of experimental variable

responding/dependent

11

6 most common elements found in the body

O, C, H, N, Ca, P

12

smallest unit of an element

atom

13

contains protons and neutrons

nucleus

14

+

protons

15

0

neutrons

16

- ; move around the nucleus

electrons

17

2 or more atoms bond to each other

molecule

18

a molecule with atom of at least two different elements bonding

compound

19

atoms share electrons to complete outer shell

covalent bond

20

atom or group of atoms that carries either a + or - electrical charge

ionic bonds

21

very weak bond/ easily broken

hydrogen bond

22

result from the transfer of electrons between atoms

ionic bond formation

23

pH 7.0

neutral

24

pH

acid

25

pH> 7.0

base

26

pH of blood

7.4

27

4 groups of polymers/macromolecules found in living things

carbs lipids protein nucleic acid

28

3 best know monosaccrides

glucose, frutose, galactose

29

permanent disruption of protein structure/shape - loss of function

denaturation

30

what causes denaturation

caused by high temps or changes in pH

31

what is the function of enzymes

speeds up chemical reaction

32

how are most enzymes named

"ase" and named for their subtrate

33

genetic info in cells- in chromosomes

DNA

34

converts the genetic info in DNA into proteins

RNA

35

3 phosphate groups

ATP

36

TWISTED DOUBLE STRAND

DNA

37

single strand

RNA

38

adenine, ribose, (adenosine)

ATP

39

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA

40

ribonucleic acid

RNA

41

adenosine triphosphate

ATP

42

cell- simpler and smaller; primary bacteria

prokaryotic

43

cells of all other organisms, including animals

eukaryotic

44

e.coli

prokaryotic

45

plants, animals

eukaryotic

46

2 major components of the plasma membrane

phospholipid and proteins

47

thin outer covering of cell

plasma membrane

48

regulates movement of substances into and out of cell

selectively permeable

49

random movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

simple diffusion

50

type of diffusion in which H2O moves across a membrane from a region of high H2O concentration to a region of lower H2O concentration

osmosis

51

movement of substances across membrane from a lower conc to a higher conc with the aid of a carrier protein

active transport

52

movement of a substance from a region of higher conc to a region of lower conc to a region of lower conc with the aid of a membrane protein

facilitated diffusion

53

movement when large substances leave cell

exocytosis

54

movement when cell engulfs substance

endocytosis

55

cell eating

phagocytosis

56

cell drinking

endocytosis

57

is a passive movement

facilitated transport

58

is an active movement

active transport

59

H2O moves out of cell

hypertonic

60

H2O moves into and out of cell equally

isotonic

61

H2O moves into cells

hypotonic

62

jellylike solution inside cell

cytoplasm

63

contains genetic info (DNA) that is passed from generation to generation

nucleus

64

separates nucleus from cytoplasm

nuclear envelope

65

openings in the nuclear envelope

nuclear pore

66

protein synthesis- where amino acids are assembled into proteins

ribosomes

67

system of interconnecting membrane channels

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

68

set of interconnected, flattened membranous sacs

golgi complex

69

membrane bound vesicles

lysosome

70

energy needs of cell

mitochondria

71

complex network of fibers within cytoplasm

cytoskeleton

72

short and numerous- sweeps stuff

cillia

73

long- usually just one; move cell

flagella

74

how many chromosomes do have cells have

46 chromosomes - 23 pairs

75

the "powerhouse" of the cell

mitochondria

76

cellular energy is in what form

food?

77

series of many chemical reactions where O2 is required ; aerobic respiration

cellular respiration

78

the breakdown of glucose without o2

fermentation

79

4 phases of cellular respiration

glycolysis
transition reaction
citric acid cycle
electron transport chain

80

is cellular respiration or fermentation more energy efficient

cellular respiration

81

what happens to the co2 produce during cell respiration

diffused out of cells into blood and taken to lungs to be exhaled

82

when does fermentation occur

process stops at end of glycolysis

83

list the list of how life is organized from cell to organ systems

cells-tissues-organs-organ system

84

cover body surfaces, lines body cavities and organs, and forms glands

epithelial tissue

85

provides body and its organs with protection and support

connective tissue

86

responsible for body movement and movement of substances through the body

muscle tissue

87

conducts nerve impulses from one part of the body to another

nervous tissue

88

attached to bone

skeletal

89

only found in heart

cardiac

90

in walls of hollow organs

smooth

91

muscle tissues that are involuntary

cardiac smooth

92

muscle tissue that is voluntary

skeletal

93

makes up brain, spinal cords, and nerves

nervous tissue

94

consists of skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands

integumentary system

95

two systems that maintain homeostasis in the body

nervous and endocrine system

96

what happens if homeostasis fails

illness or death

97

support
movement
protection
storage of minerals
storage of fat
blood cell formation

functions of bones

98

examples of bones used for protection

skull, sternum, ribs

99

what minerals are stored in bones

calcium and phosphorus

100

where are blood cells formed

in red bone marrow

101

why is bone a living tissue

it has many cells -osteocytes

102

how many bones do we have in our body

206

103

places where bones meet

joints

104

movement
posture
support internal organs
move blood and lymph
generates heart

functions of skeletal muscle

105

integrates and coorindates all the bodys varied activities

nervous sytem

106

conduct info toward brain and spinal cord

sensory neurons

107

carry info away from brain and spinal cord to an effector

motor neurons

108

found only within brain and spinal cord

interneurons

109

2 possible effectors of motor neurons

muscles or glands

110

has normal organelles, nucleus, etc

cell body

111

single long extension that carries messages away from cell body to either another cell or to an effector

axon

112

many short, branching projections

dendrites

113

chemicals that cause an impulse to move from cell to cell

neurotransmitter

114

junction between a neuron and another cell

synapse

115

2 major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each

central nervous- brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous- nerves

116

2 major functional divisions of the PNS and provide functions

somatic NS- directs voluntary movement
autonomic NS- regulates involuntary bodily activites

117

2 divisions of the autonomic NS

sympathetic and parasympathetic

118

serve as the bodys central command center, coordinating and regulating the bodys other systems

brain

119

higher level thinking, interpreting sensations, language, decision making, creativity, memory

cerebrum

120

relays information to appropriate higher brain centers

thalamus

121

connects nervous and endocrine system; controls heart rate, BP, breathing rate, body temp, food intake, center for emotions

hypothalamus

122

coordinate voluntary movement with input from joints, muscles, eyes, and inner ears

cerebellum

123

autonomic centers for breathing, heart rate and digestive activities

brain stem

124

helps produce emotions and memory

limbic system

125

3 components of the brain stem

medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain

126

conduct messages between brain and body; serve as reflex center

spinal cord

127

touch, pressure, vibration, temp

general senses

128

tough white of the eye; protection and attachment to eye muscles

sclera

129

transparent front of eye; window of eye

cornea

130

contains blood vessels to supply chemicals and O2 to tissues of the eye

choroid

131

colored portion of the eye; regulates amount of light entering eye

iris

132

send signal to brain via optic nerve

retina

133

transparent, elastic, roundish structure behind iris and pupil

lens

134

for vision in dim light and black and white vision

rods

135

for color vision

cones

136

the receiver

outer ear

137

the amplifier

middle ear

138

the transmitter

inner ear

139

gathers sound and channels it into the

pinna

140

eardrum

tympanic membrane

141

3 bones in the ear

malleus, incus, stapes

142

balance and equilibrium

vestibular apparatus

143

why are middle ear infections more common in kids

straighter and shorter auditory tube

144

where are olfactory receptors

in roof of nasal cavity

145

cells are stimulated by odor molecules and message is sent to limbic system and cerebrum

olfactory receptors

146

5 primary tastes

sweet
salty
sour
bitter
umami

147

where are hormones made

endocrine glands

148

regulate and coordinate other body systems and thus maintain homeostasis

endocrine system

149

endocrine function is the same as what other system in the body

nervous system

150

functions: transportation, protection, regulation

blood

151

what is the main component of plasma

h2o

152

where are the formed elements of blood made

in red bone marrow by stem cells

153

blood clotting

platelets

154

many squeeze out of blood vessels to site of infection, tissue damage or inflammation

wbc

155

pick up o2 in lungs and carry it to body cells

rbc

156

most numerous type of blood cell in our body

rbc

157

2 major components of the cardiovascular system

heart and blood vessels

158

bodys transportation network

cardiovascular system

159

list the blood vessels within the bodys circuit

heart-arti\eries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins-heart

160

tubes that transport blood away from heart

arteries

161

exchange of materials between blood and body cells

capillaries

162

tubes that return blood back to heart

veins

163

walls of the capillaries are only 1 cell layer thick because...

it allows materials through easily and quickly

164

pumps blood to lungs

right side of heart

165

pumps blood to rest of body

left side of heart

166

upper smaller chambers that receive blood returning to the heart

2 atria

167

lower larger chambers; pushes blood out of heart

2 ventricles

168

heart-lungs-heart

pulmonary circuit

169

heart-body tissues-heart

systemic circuit

170

heart-heart muscle cells- heart

coronary circulation

171

where does lymph originate

lymphatic system

172

return excess interstitial fluid to bloodstream
transport products of fat digestion from the small intestine to the blood stream
help defend against disease causing organisms

functions of lymphathic system

173

targets pathogens

bodys defense system

174

organisms that cause disease or infection

pathogens

175

three lines of defense

keep foreign organisms out of body; attack any foreign organisms inside the body; destroy a specific type of foreign organism inside body

176

4 ways in which the body attacks any foreign organisms, molecules, or cancer cells inside body

defensive cells, defensive proteins, inflammation, fever

177

slows growth of bacteria; stimulates body defense response

fever

178

is specific to pathogen and has memory

immune system

179

why is o2 important

helps make ATP energy via cellular respiration

180

provide body with O2 and dispose of CO2

functions of respiratory system

181

upper respiratory structures

nose- nasal cavity- pharynx- larynx

182

filters, warms, and moistens air

upper respir system

183

move air to gas exchange surface and gas exchange

lower respir system

184

lower respiratory structures

trachea- bronchial tree- lungs

185

voice box

larynx

186

throat

pharynx

187

windpipe

trachea

188

thin walled round chamber that is surround by many capillaries for gas exchange in and out; provides huge surface area for gas exchange

alveoli

189

viral- many different viruses can cause; no antibiotics

common cold

190

viral- many kinds and no antibiotics

flu

191

fluid accumulates in alveoli and bronchioles swell

pneumonia

192

bacterial infection- antibiotic treatment

strep throat

193

thick, sticky mucus- clogs air passageways and traps bacteria

cystic fibrosis

194

what type of microorganisms cause the common cold and flu

viral

195

why is it taking an antibiotic inappropriate for the common cold and flu

because antibiotics are for bacterial not viral

196

list organs in the gastrointestinal tract

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus

197

4 digestive assessory organs

salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gall bladder

198

mechanical breakdown of food

teeth

199

moistens and binds food
contains enzyme to begin digestion of sugars and starches

salivary glands

200

what begins digestion by the saliva

proteins

201

what is the tongue made of

a muscle

202

store food and regulate release of food to small intest
liquefy food
carry out initial digestion of proteins

stomach

203

functions: chemical digestion and absorption

small intestine

204

primary site of absorption of nutrients

absorption

205

largest region of the large intestine

colon

206

absorbs h2o and ions
stores, forms, and expels feces

large intestine

207

the location where the pancreatic enzymes are released

first part of small intestine

208

physically breaks down fats for increase enzyme action

bile function

209

secrete it into gall bladder and small intestine

bile

210

where is bile produced

in liver

211

stores and releases bile into small intestine

gall bladder

212

when is the gall bladder needed

in response to increase of fats entering small intestine

213

4 basic organs of the urinary system

kidneys
ureters
urethra
urinary bladder

214

remove wastes from body
regulate blood volume and bp
stimulate production of rbc
regulate concentrations of solutes in plasma
help stabilize blood pH
promote the bodys use of calcium and phosphorus

kidneys

215

tubes connecting kidneys and bladder

ureters

216

temporarily stores urine

urinary bladder

217

tube that transports urine out of body

urethra

218

functional unit of the kidney

nephron

219

as blood moves through and is filtered- substances are removed from and added to blood

nephrons

220

usually from bacteria travelling up urethra from outside body

UTI

221

why are utis more common in female

shorter urethra and is closer to anus

222

why do cells need to reproduce

growth and development; renewal and repair

223

significance of dna with regard to cell division

copies of dna are made and 1 copy is passed from parent cell to daughter cell

224

nuclear division that results in identical body cells (somatic cells)

mitosis

225

nuclear division that creates gametes (egg and sperm)

meiosis

226

so daughter cell nuclei get the same number and kinds of chromosomes as mother cell nucleus

mitosis

227

chromatin condenses to form chromosomes and spindles appear

prophase

228

centromeres line up at center of cell

metaphase

229

centromeres split and chromatids separate- become daughter chromosomes

anaphase

230

chromosomes cluster at opposite poles and begin changing back to chromatin

telophase

231

reduces the chromosome number from diploid number to haploid number

meosis

232

with what event will these cells contain 2 complete sets of chromosomes

mitosis

233

another name for down syndrome

trisomy 21

234

3 chromosomes

trisomy

235

certain segments of dna

genes

236

different forms of a gene

alleles

237

one that has the ability to mask the expression of another

dominant allele

238

one whose expression is masked by the dominant allele for the same trait

recesive allele

239

organism that has 2 identical alleles

homozygous

240

organism that has 2 different alleles

heterozygous

241

precise set of alleles of a person possesses for a given trait

genotype

242

observable physical trait or traits

phenotype

243

any chromosome other than a sex chromosome

autosomes

244

appear normal but can have child with disorder

carrier

245

when there are more than 2 possible for a particular trait

multiple alleles

246

both expressed when both present

codominant

247

when a trait is controlled by 2 or more genes and each dominant allele has an additive effect to the phenotype

polygenic inheritance

248

why males are affected more often by x-linked disorders than females

get 1 X chromosome- if they get recessive gene they show disorder

249

4 nitrogen bases found in dna

cytosine
guanine
thymine
adenine

250

3 types of rna

messenger
transfer
ribosomal

251

info from dna to mRNA; protein synthesis

transcription

252

info from mRNA to protein; protein synthesis

translation

253

how many different amino acids are there

20

254

permanent change in the sequence of bases in dna

gene mutation

255

manipulation of genetic material for human purposes

genetic engineering

256

contains dna from 2 or more different sources

recombinant dna

257

cures genetic diseases

gene therapy

258

discovered the order of base pairs in human dna and determined humans have 20-25,000 genes that code for proteins

human genome project

259

how long did the human genome project take

13 years completed in 2003

260

2 gonads

testes and ovaries

261

2 gametes

sperm and egg

262

produce gametes and sex hormones

gonads

263

3 organs in the male duct system

epididymis
vas deferns
urethra

264

3 accessory organs of the male

seminal vesicle
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland

265

surrounds upper portion of urethra

prostate gland

266

deliver sperm to female reprod system

penis

267

where does fertilization occur

oviducts/fallopian tubes

268

what day is ovulation

14