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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (48):
1

Middle-dist events include

Combat sports
Boxing
Judo
Wrestling

2

Middle-dist events how many rounds and how long

Multiple rounds of 3-5 min duration

3

What is the world record for Energy and P2 cost of Middle-dist running?

1500 m pace= ~366 ml O2 per kg body mass

Or

~105 ml O2 per kg body mass/min

4

For a Middle-dist events Max O2 consumption at 2 min is

80-85 ml/kg/min

5

Anaerobic metabolism supplies how much of energy for Middle-dist events

~ 60% of energy of < 2 min event

6

Is there O2 in glycolysis

NO

7

Location of glycolysis

Cytoplasm of the cell

8

How much Water is retained for 1g of glycogen

2-3 gr H2O

9

Fraction of H and O in glucose

H:O ---> 2:1

10

Total CHO storage in liver

~ 100 gr

11

Total CHO storage in muscles

~ 400-500 g in muscles

12

Do FA convert to CHO?

No

13

All dietary CHO must be converted to ------to be used by our body

Glucose

14

Excess protein in the diet that is unused as AA will

1. Burned for energy
2. Converted to body fat

15

What is the end point of Glycolytic pathway ?

Pyruvate

16

How many carbon atoms does pyruvate have

3

17

Starting point of Glycolytic pathway

Store CHO in the form of glucose or glycogen

18

How many pyruvate in glycolytic pathway ?

2

19

Glucose transporter from blood to muscles

GLUT 4

20

What process ensures that glucose is trapped in the cell

Adding a phosphate to the glucose molecule

21

Overall glycolysis rxn:

Glucose + 2NAD + 2ADP + 2P → Pyruvate (3C) + 2H + 2ATP + 2H20

22

In anaerobic pathway pyruvate converts to

Lactate

23

In Aerobic pathway pyruvate attaches to ---------and loses a carbon atom as Co2

Coenzyme A

24

When pyruvate attaches to Coenzyme A it yields

Acetyl CoA

25

In aerobic pathway what molecule enters the TCA cycle

Acetyl coA

26

What is fatigue ?

Inability of muscle to maintain require rate of work

27

When is max speed in elite sprinters

At 3-4 sec , 30-40 meters

28

When does max lactate occur in muscles

At the end of exercise around 3-7 min

29

Cause of fatigue

Increased lactate ---> decrease PH,

Low pH----> fatigue

30

Key recovery components

1. Restoration of muscle PCr
2. Restoration of muscle ATP
3. Removal of Lactate
4. Restoration of normal pH (~7.0)

31

When does restoration of PCr and ATP occur after exercise

Within a few minutes ( 5-10)

32

What does have exponential rate of recovery

PCr

33

How is the exponential rate of PCr recovery

50% complete in first 30-60 sec

34

What happens to lactate after exercise

Some lactate goes to liver --->converted to glucose

Some lactate goes to active tissue ---> converted to pyruvate (via lactate dehydrogenase ) and used as fuel via oxidative pathway

35

What happens in hydrogen ions after exercise

In blood react with carbonate ions and form CO2 and H2O

36

How long does lactate removal and pH storatio to normal take

1 hr

37

Lactate recovery is faster if

Walking or slow running

38

What is the slowest aspect of recovery after exercise ?

Replacement of muscle glycogen

39

How do muscles replace glycogen

Some from liver
Most from diet
Some from blood ?

40

Nutrition effect of the mid-distance athlete

Glycogen must be

Maxed for optimal performance

41

Nutrition effect of the mid-distance athlete

CHO intake ?

Requires adequate dietary CHO intake during training phases and pre-competition

42

Oxidation of which one yields more energy ? CHO vs fat

CHO per unit of O2

43

Why does increasing buffer capacity help?

Acidosis reduces performance

44

How to increase buffer capacity

Pre-performance ingestion of alkaline salts
1. Bicarbonate
2.Baking soda
3.Beta alanine

45

When do you have to take banking soda ?

1-2 hrs pre event

46

Doses of baking soda

0.1< x < 0.3 g/kg of body weight
With 1 L of H20 , 1-2 hrs pre event

47

Beta alanine increases

Muscular carnosine content

48

6.4 g beta-alanine in eight divided doses

Increase muscular carnosine by 60% after 4 weeks and

80% after 10 weeks