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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (70):
1

In endurance event anaerobic metabolism predominates when ?

For only about the 1st minute

Aerobic metabolism dominates after that

2

Who has lower isometric strength in quadriceps?

Endurance runners or sprinters

Endurance runners

3

Who has lower isometric strength in quadriceps ?

Endurance runners or
A healthy untrained person

Healthy untrained person

4

VO2 max limiting factors ?

Heart pumping capacity
Lungs ability to deliver O2 specially at altitude

5

How come endurance athletes' muscle is not a limiting factor ?

Their muscles have sufficient concentration of necessary enzymes that they aren't limiting factor

6

How to distinguish the elite performer

VO2 max: best performers tend to have high VO2 max

Also elite can also run at a high fraction of VO2 max

7

Elite performers have a high proportion of this kind of fiber

Type 1 fiber

8

Most of their fast twitch fibers are

Type IIa

9

In elite athletes oxidative enzymes are highly present in

Type I and
Type IIa

10

True or False ?

oxidative capacity of elite athletes' type-IIa fibers exceed the sedentary person's type I fibers

True

11

True or False ?

oxidative capacity of type-II fibers exceeds the capacity of type-I fibers in the same person!

FALSE
oxidative capacity of type-II fibers
doesn't exceed the capacity of type-I fibers in the same person!

12

Biggest adaptation in elite athletes

Capacity for use of fat as fuel

13

What is a potential limitation to endurance exercise performance

CHO availability

14

Key in CHO homeostasis

Liver

15

True or false ?

RBCs have no mitochondria

True

16

True or false

CHO is more efficient storage of energy than fat

FALSE
Fat is more efficient

17

True or false

Fat cells have little H2O

True

18

How much water in glycogen ?

2-3 g /1 g glycogen

19

fat storage in avg men

15-20% body mass

20

Fat storage in avg women

25-33% body mass

21

Fat storage in elite athletes men

3-5%

22

Fat storage in elite women athletes

7-10%

23

Fat functions

Energy storage
Protect vital organs
Insulate from cold
Membrane component
Nerve sheaths

24

90% of body fat is

Triglyceride

25

Most triglyceride is in

Fat cells
And some in skeletal muscle

26

Most common #C fatty acids ?

14,22,16,18

27

What is lipolysis

Breakdown of triglyceride into 3 FA and 1 glycerol

28

Prolonged exercise at 50% VO2 max

Increases blood circulation in fat tissue

29

T/F?

Intense exercise increases blood floe in fat tissue , restricting entry of FFAs and glycerol into circulation

F

intense exercise decreases blood flow in fat
tissue, restricting entry of FFAs and glycerol into circulation

30

This protein transports most FFA within plasma

Albumin

31

How does FFAs across sarcolemma membrane goes into muscles

With facilitated diffusion

32

In muscle FFAs are converted to

Acetyl coA in preparation for beta oxidation

33

What is needed to transport FAs in the form of acetyl coA across mitochondrial membrane

Carnitine

34

What is carntine

A vitamin-like substance
Found mostly in skeletal muscle &heart , red meats, dairy products
Synthesized in the liver & kidney

35

Carnitine is synthesized in the

Liver and kidney

36

Is carnitine essential in diet ?

NO

37

Esssential AAs

phenylalanine,
valine,
threonine,
methionine,
tryptophan,
histidine,
isoleucine,
leucine,
lysine

38

Lives uses which essential AAs

Methionine
Lysin

39

At exercise intensity >60% VO2max how does body provide energy

ATP derived from CHO oxidation and anaerobic glycolysis

40

T/F?

Fats can't fuel ATP production anaerobically, so
FAs are oxidized in mitochondria via beta-
oxidation

T

41

Products of beta oxidation of Fatty Acids

Acetyl CoA
Water
5 ATP

42

This should be removed prior to oxidation of FA

Amino group

43

Removal of Amino group is done by

TransAmination

44

What happens to the remaining carbon skeleton in oxidation of FA

Oxidized in the TCA cycle

45

2 ways remaining carbon skeleton is oxidized in TCA cycle

1. Acetyl CoA
2. Alpha-ketogluterate or Oxaloacetate

46

How many mole of ATP per mole of glucose

38

47

T/F
Hormonal response is greater when exercising at high temperature

T

48

Hormonal response mobilizes

Glycogen and triglyceride stores

49

Hormonal release during excercise

Insulin
Glucagon
Catecholamines
Cortisol
Growth hormone
Cytokines

50

Catecholamines

Adrenaline
Noradrenaline

51

Catecholamines promote

Liver glycogen breakdown
Adipose tissue lipolysis

52

How much should the exercise intensity be in order for catecholamine concentration to increase in the blood

>50% VO2 max

53

Main effects of cortisol

Promote protein degradation
AA release from muscle
Stimulate gluconeogenesis in the liver

54

Growth hormone stimulate

Mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue

55

Protein messenger molecule

Cytokines

56

This hormone is both pro inflammatory and anti inflammatory

Cytokines

57

Amount of release of cytokines is related to

Exercise DURATION

58

What is a prolonged exercise

Intensity sustainable for 30-180 min

59

T/F?

ATP demand for prolonged exercise is lower than that of intensity exercise

T

60

During prolonged exercise plasma free FA can rise to

3-5 X resting concentration

61

T/F?

FA oxidation can't meet ATP requirements at VO2max of above 50-60%

True

62

-------enhances performance in hot conditions

Bupropion

63

Diet need to supply how much CHO

6-10 g CHO/kg of body weight

64

Suggestion for consuming CHO after training

50-100 gr CHO

65

Endurance capacity at 70% VO2 max closely related to

Initial muscle glycogen

66

Suggested CHO intake RATE when exercise duration is > 1 hr

30-60 g/hr

67

Reason for improving brief intense enhancement by caffeine

Brain stimulation
Muscle contraction stimulation

68

IV infusion of carnitine with insulin
Increase

Cartinitine uptake into muscles

69

With IV infusion of carnitine and a large CHO intake (orally) substituting for

IV infusion of insulin

70

Increasing muscle carnitine content appears to

Reduce glycolysis
Increase FA oxidation
Ergogenic aid