Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

Nutrition and Physical Performance > Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (64):
1

Adaptation to training is governed by 3 principles

Overload
Specificity
Reversibility

2

Weight training increase

Force generating capacity and muscle size

3

Training regimen must be carefully chosen to

Maximize strength with minimal mass gain

4

Training aims at increasing what proteins

Actin and myosin

5

Low force -low velocity training train which type of muscles first ?

Type 1 fibers

6

Low force -low velocity training train typeI fibers and exception is

When type I fibers are fatigued/damaged from other training, then type II will be recruited

7

Increases muscle size is

~ increase cross sectional area

8

Measurable increase in muscle size ban be seen after

~ 15 training sessions

9

When training for speed muscle mass

Increases

10

When training for speed , anaerobic capacity

Increases

11

When training for speed muscle ATP /Pcr

Unchanged

12

When training for speed key glycolytic enzymes such as phosphofructokinase

Increase

13

When training for speed buffering capacity

Increases

14

When training for speed proportions of fiber types in terms of number of fibers

Unchanged

15

When training for speed proportion of fiber types by weight or size

Does change
Enlargement of type II fibers

16

Sprint training changes

Muscle - enzyme activity

17

Sprint training changes

Muscle - enzyme activity

18

Sprint training changes muscle-enzyme activity these changes are ----dependent

Stimulus

19

T/F
In sprint training, enzymes for anaerobic metabolism can increase

T

20

Elite middle distance needs

High capacity lactate production

21

In training for middle distance what needs to be increased

Glycolytic rate limiting step

22

Enzymes to produce glucose from glycogen

Glycogen phosphorylase
Phosphofructokinase
Lactate dehydrogenase

23

Use of FA as fuel is determined by

Rate of delivery to the muscle

24

What is one of the most important endurance adaptations

Capacity to use FAs as fuel

25

Acts as small store of O2 for times of high demand

Myoglobin

26

The most important function in endurance athletes

Diffusion of O2 Within the muscle cell

27

T/F?
Aerobic-enzyme activity and max. respiratory capacity is higher by 2-3x in trained athletes

T

28

T/F

Enzyme activity increases with even small amounts of training

T

29

What is the function of endurance training on intramuscular level of TAG

Increases

30

Effect of endurance training on rate of muscle glycogen

Decreases it 😳

31

T/F

Myofibrils can be rebuilt with a different type of myosin

T

32

T/F
Unused muscled dont adapt

T

33

Passive stretch induce

Muscle enlargement

34

In passive stretch mechanical load must be included to activate

Signaling pathways of ribosomal machinery and transcription of genes

35

Activation of this signaling pathway appears crucial in increasing protein synthesis following resistance exercise

MTor

36

Over-training syndrome

Under-performance in spite of continued/ increased training

37

Over-reaching is

Temporary with full recovery or performance improvement tin a few days

38

Over-reaching may be related to

Insufficient recovery of muscle glycogen or exercise induce muscle damage

39

T/F
Heavy training makes one less susceptible to infection

F

40

T/F

2-6 times more likely to upper respiratory infection in long distance runners

T

41

Increase in circulating leukocyte amount related to

Intensity/duration of exercise

42

Hormonal change effect with strenuous exercise

Adrenaline
Cortisol
Growth hormone
Prolactin

43

T/F

Phagocytic neutrophils activated during strenuous axe rise but have diminished killing ability for many hours

T

44

T/F

NK cells increase during exercise but drop to < 1/2 normal levels for some hours

T

45

Normal level of NK cells return after

24 hrs

46

High training loads are associated with chronic

Immunodepression

47

T/F

Overreaching for > 10 days may result in chronically depressed immune function

F

> 6 days

48

T/F

Training adaptations are reversible

T

49

What can prevent or slow detraining

Short periods of high intensity training

50

T/F

High fat diets may improve capacity to oxidize FFA in well trained athletes

T

51

T/F

Low CHO training may have stress hormone responses that cancel benefits

T

52

T/F

Antioxidant are produced by normal aerobic metabolism

T

53

Singlet O2 has a pair of electron with

Opposite spins

54

Antioxidants prevent H abstraction from

FA side chains

55

Antioxidants bind to metal ion catalysts to

Prevent initiation of free radical reactions

56

Low molecular weight substances that act as free radical scavengers

Vitamin A, C, E
Carotenoids - beta carotine
Plant polyphenol

57

What are the plant polyphenols

Tea
Wine
Fruit
Vegetables
Flavonoids -subgroup

58

What are the advantages of ROS and RNS ?

Moderate levels of ROS are essential to optimal force production in muscle

Also a signaling mechanism

59

In heavy smokers high -----and -----intake increases incidence of lung cancer

Vitamin E
beta-Carotine

60

T/F

High dose of antioxidants inhibit apoptosis

T

61

Vitamin A in pregnant women causes

Birth defects

62

Vitamin E can impair absorption of

Vitamin A and K

63

NSAIDs Studies show a post exercise suppression of

Creatine kinase response

64

T/F?
NSAIDs are recommended to treat symptoms of muscle damage

F

NOT recommended