Lecture H Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture H Deck (68):
1

Factors impacting fuel choice during exercise

Exercise intensity
Diet
Training
Body Composition
Gender

2

Training increase ----oxidation

Fat

3

Training decrease ----oxidation

CHO

4

For events lasting < 10 sec which muscle types are more recruited

Type II muscle fibers

5

For events lasting < 10 sec what is the primary energy source

Anaerobic
Phosphocreatine

6

In events lasting 10-180 sec
At 10 s

70% of energy supplied is a aerobically

7

In events lasting 10-180
At 180 S

60% supplied energy is aerobically

8

Events lasting 10–180 seconds primary energy source

Anaerobic glycolysis
• Results in elevated lactate levels

9

Events lasting 3–20 minutes
At 30 min

60% ATP generated

10

Events lasting 3–20 minutes
At 20 min

90% ATP generated aerobically

11

What type of muscles are required Events lasting 3–20 minutes

Type II fibers

12

Events lasting 3–20 minutes
Limiting factors

Altitude
Anemia

13

Events lasting 21–60 minutes
Predominantly

Aerobic

14

Events lasting 21–60 minutes ?% Vo2 max

90%

15

Environmental factors that are important in Events lasting 21–60 minutes

Heat
Humidity
State of hydration

16



T/F
Events lasting 1–4 hours diet and fluid ingestion influence performance

T

17

3 factors determine the extent of the physiological and metabolic adaptations to training:

OVERLOAD
SPECIFICITY
REVERSIBILITY

18

Overload

adaptations occur only if training level > habitual level on frequent basis

19

Specificity

train for appropriate adaptations: Strength? Speed? Endurance?
use the muscles that are required

20

Reversibility

after only a few days of detraining, significant losses in metabolic
and work capacity are evident

21

the proteins that generate force

Actin
Myosin

22

training aimed at increasing muscle content of these proteins

Actin
Myosin

23

At low intensity what type of fibers are recruited

Type I only

24

T/F

continued recruitment of Type I without exhaustion will not impact Type II

T

25

Ways to get positive adaptations in Type II fibers

--increase intensity
--high velocity of movement
--fatigue/damage Type 1 by prior exercise

26

For hypertrophy to occur:

--increased rate of protein synthesis
--decreased rate of protein degradation
--combination of both
--diet supplements?

27


T/F
Increase in force production happens before hypertrophy

T

28

Goals for training for speed

Increase muscle mass
Reaction time
Anaerobic capacity

29

T/F

Sprint training does NOT increase ATP or PCr concentrations in muscle

T

30

T/F

Sprint training DOES increase muscle mass, so more total store of PCr is available to generate anaerobic power

T

31

T/F

sprint training increases PFK levels
sprint training increases buffering capacity of muscle

T, T

32

Why does sprint training increase buffering capacity of muscles

Probably due to selective hypertrophy of Type II muscles (glycolytic)

33

T/f
Sprint training increases muscle enzyme activity

T

34

6 second sprints

no change in enzyme activity

35

30 second sprints

significant increase in CK and myokinase

36

Effect of significant increase in CK and myokinase

Increased anaerobic capacity

37

T/F

Under conditions of extreme exercise intensity; very small contribution to total ATP production;

T

38

Goal for training for middle distance

Increase anaerobic capacity
Increase capacity for lactate production
Increase tolerance to lactate

39

To increase production of lactate, must increase rate of

Glycolysis

40

3 enzymes that increase significantly in response to 30 second sprint

glycogen phosphorylase
PFK1
lactate dehydrogenase

41

What is required to promote tolerance of lactate and other byproducts of glycolysis

Buffering capacity

42

Buffering capacity significantly improved with

intense anaerobic conditioning:
8 weeks intense training: 40-50% increase buffering capacity
↑↑ capacity to perform high intensity
exercise

43

Name some extracellular buffers

Phosphates
Carnosine
Bicarbonate
Albumin
Hgb

44

Goal for Training for Endurance

cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations to training must increase capacity for fuel oxidation
--increase aerobic capacity
--increase supply of oxygen to muscles

45

T/F
succinate dehydrogenase levels directly correlate to oxygen uptake)

T

46

Training for Endurance
Muscles adapt by increasing

Size and number of mitochondria

47

Training for Endurance
One of moist important adaptations

rate of delivery of FFA into muscle impacted by ↑ capillary density and plasma concentrations of FFA

48

Rate of delivery of FFA into muscles impacted by

1. Increase capillary density
2. Plasma concentrations of FFA

49

Enzyme responsible for FA transport

Carnitine acetyl transferase

50

Enzyme responsible for FA oxidation

Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase

51

What are the molecular mechanisms that permit these adaptations?

Stretching
Damage
Protein specificity

52

Protein is a ------to adaptation

Potent stimulus

53

Passive stretching induces

Muscle enlargement even in absence of interaction, insulin, GH or adequate nutrition

54

Direct or membrane bound stretch

Activates ion channels or
Activates stretch induce alterations in plasma membrane associate molecules ( adenylate cyclase )

55

Damage to muscle fibers releases

Muscle specific Growth factor

56

Damage to muscle fibers reduces

Contact inhibition between satellite cells

57

Damage to muscle fibers results in

Satellite cell proliferation during 1st day following muscle injury

58

CHO beverage BEFORE and DURING match

Will Spare glycogen

59

Use of CHO drinks allowed athletes to cover

25% more ground

60

For short duration, high intensity what is CHO requirement

10 g CHO/kg during 24 hr recovery period

61

rate of glycogen resynthesis much faster following

high intensity training than endurance training (2-4 times greater)

62

Why is rate of glycogen resynthesis much faster following high intensity training than endurance training ?

probably due to increased glucose and insulin in plasma and higher lactate and more glycogen synthase because of greater proportion of Type II fibers

63

Below what level of CHO consumption performance suffers in swimmers

400 g/day

64

For LONG DURATION/MODERATE INTENSITY what is the CHO need

45-75 g/hr
Can combine liquid and solid

65

T/F?

LONG DURATION/MODERATE INTENSITY feeding CHO DURING events > 1 hr increase performance

T

66

Protein needs for LONG DURATION/MODERATE INTENSITY

1.4 g/kg

67

Increase in protein need is due to

trauma of repeated muscular
contractions (especially eccentric contractions)

68

T/F

In long duration, high intensity exercise protein need increased in spite of lack of muscle hypertrophy

T