Chapter 4: Cartilage (exam 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Cartilage (exam 2) Deck (55)
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1
Q

Cartilage is a what type of CT?

A

Specialized type of CT

2
Q

Cartilage is semi-rigid yet…

A

flexible

3
Q

Cartilage cells and matrix immediately surrounding these cells have no what?

A

no capillary networks of their own

4
Q

How is nutrition brought to the cartilage?

A

Diffusion (the thicker the cartilage the harder it is to diffuse)

5
Q

what are the functions of cartilage (2)

A

Support and act as a template for endochondral bone ossification

6
Q

What are the three types of cartilage?

A

Hyaline (MC), elastic and fibrocartilage

7
Q

Elastic cartilage is a specialized type of what?

A

hyaline cartilage

8
Q

Fiber type in Hyaline (H), Elastic (E) and Fibrocartilage (F)

A

H- Collagen II. E-Collagen II and Elastic.

F- Collagen I

9
Q

Does hyaline, elastic, and/or fibrocartilage have a perichondrium?

A

H- yes, usually
E- yes, always
F- No

10
Q

Places that hyaline cartilage is found?

A

Most of the larynx, tracheal rings + bronchi, articular cart, thyroid, nasal septum, costal cartilage

11
Q

Places that Elastic cartilage is found?

A

Cartilage in the larynx, ear pinna, external auditory tube, epiglottis

12
Q

Places that fibrocartilage is found?

A

Annular fibrosis of IVD, knee menisci, pubic symphisis, insertion of some tendons

13
Q

Hyaline cartilage matrix is made up of what?

A

Ground Substance and Fibers

14
Q

What is hyaline cartilage matrix made up of?

A

Aggrecans, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans and chondronectin

15
Q

Aggrecans found in the ground substance is what?

A

Large molecules composed of Protein (form the core) and Sulfated GAG’s (100-200/aggrecans)

16
Q

Some examples of sulfated GAG’s?

A

chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate, heparin sulfate

17
Q

Hyaluronic acid is also known as what?

A

Hyaluronan

18
Q

Each hyaluronic acid bonds to what?

A

Many aggrecans

19
Q

what is held between HA and the aggrecans?

A

large amounts of water

20
Q

Other proteoglycans found in the matrix of hyaline cartilage does what?

A

It does not form aggregates, binds to other molecules, and helps stabilize matrix

21
Q

Chondronectin is a what?

A

is an adhesive glycoprotein

22
Q

Fibers in the matrix of hyaline cartilage are what?

A

primarily Collagen II and some Collagen IX, X, XI

23
Q

What are the cells found in hyaline cartilage?

A

Chondrogenic cells, chondroblasts, chondrocyte

24
Q

what is the appearance of chondrogenic cells

A

very narrow

25
Q

what is the location of chondrogenic cells

A

in cellular part of the perichondrium

26
Q

chondrogenic cells are derived from what?

A

mesenchyme cells (sometimes osteoprogenitors)

27
Q

chondrogenic cells differentiates into what?

A

chondroblasts when matrix is needed (sometimes osteoprogenitors)

28
Q

what is the function of chondrogenic cells

A

as a chondroblasts source

29
Q

do chondrogenic cells undergo mitosis?

A

yes they can divide (beneficial to healing and chondroblasts)

30
Q

What is the appearance of chondroblast cells?

A

Oval

31
Q

where are chondroblasts located?

A

chondrogenic perichondrium

32
Q

Chondroblasts are derived from what cell?

A

usually from chondrogenic cells. Sometimes mesenchyme cells (interstitial cartilage growth) or fibroblasts (appositional cartilage growth)

33
Q

chondroblasts differentiate into what?

A

chondrocytes

34
Q

what is the function of chondroblasts?

A

really good at producing matrix components and all parts of the matrix

35
Q

do chondroblasts undergo mitosis?

A

nope

36
Q

chondroblasts can exist for long periods of time how?

A

inactive and suspended in the matrix

37
Q

Chondroblasts can survive in what type of environment that other body cells are unable to survive in?

A

they can thrive in low oxygen environment

38
Q

What is the appearance of chondrocytes?

A

more round

39
Q

what is the location of chondrocytes?

A

found in the interior to the perichondrium (chondrogenic perichondrium)

40
Q

Chondrocytes are derived from what?

A

chondroblasts

41
Q

chondrocytes can differentiate into what?

A

Nothing (already at the end of the chondrocell line)

42
Q

what are the functions of chondrocytes?

A

maintain matrix to prevent calcification and to produce some new matrix

43
Q

can chondrocytes undergo mitosis?

A

yes they can

44
Q

young chondrocytes can divide one or two times max in order to make what?

A

isogenic groups

45
Q

chondrocytes are able to thrive in low oxygen environments. Will they still be able to exist in an environment that has a lot of blood vessels?

A

Nah duuuuuude

46
Q

What is the location of the perichondrium?

A

peripheral to cartilage

47
Q

What are the exceptions where you have hyaline cartilage and NO perichondrium?

A

epiphyseal growth plates and articular cartilage (lining the ends of bones and joints)

48
Q

What are the two parts of the perichondrium?

A

the Fibrous perichondrium and the chondrogenic perichondrium

49
Q

Fibrous perichondrium is is on the outermost portion and are primarily what type of cell?

A

fibroblasts

50
Q

why is the fibrous perichondrium call that?

A

because its dominate collagen type if collagen I

51
Q

The chondrogenic perichondrium is located where?

A

inside the fibrous perichondrium and is a thin layer

52
Q

what are the types of cells found in the chondrogenic perichondrium?

A

chondrogenic cells and chondroblasts

53
Q

what is the fiber type found in this layer?

A

collagen II

54
Q

the perichondrium is important because it supplies what?

A

blood vessels for oxygen and nutrients as well as it sup pies cells for matrix production (which is important in healing)

55
Q

Histogenesis is also known as?

A

chondrogenesis