Chapter 4: Clinical aspects (Exam 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Clinical aspects (Exam 2) Deck (30)
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1
Q

As age increases the number of chondrocytes will what?

A

decrease

2
Q

less chondrocytes due to aging means what?

A

there is less matrix

3
Q

in addition to less matrix as you age will you see an increase what?

A

calcification (primarily of hyaline)

4
Q

What helps prevent calcification of cartilage

A

chondrocytes

5
Q

where does one not see an issue with calcification

A

in elastic cartilage

6
Q

When are hormones and vitamins effects the greatest on cartilage?

A
  1. original development of cartilage
  2. during the ossification process
  3. after birth at the epiphyseal growth plates
7
Q

the healing of hyaline and elastic cartilage is very what?

A

limited

8
Q

inflammation is common in both hyaline and elastic cartilage and can ultimately lead to what?

A

scar tissue

9
Q

compared to adults how is the healing of hyaline and elastic cartilage in children?

A

much better

10
Q

Osteoarthritis (OA) is what type of a disease?

A

a degenerative joint disease

11
Q

If osteoarthritis is pathological if what occurs?

A

it is seen before 60-70yrs of age and it is too severe (not related to injury)

12
Q

What are the three types of OA

A

Primary OA, Traumatic OA, and inherited OA

13
Q

Primary Osteoarthritis is what? (frequency of cases and related to what)

A

Most common and is age related

14
Q

what are some possible causes of Primary OA?

A

wear and tear theory and muscle dysfunction

15
Q

Traumatic OA is related to what?

A

injury (Athletic injury is a biggy)

16
Q

Inherited OA is a genetic mutation of what?

A

collagen II fibers (weaker which causes the matrix to be weaker)

17
Q

what is the onset and severity of Inherited OA

A

it is an early onset and it is severe

18
Q

what is the OA cycle?

A

Cartilage decreases the osteophytes develop the joint irritation then inflammation and then you lose more cartilage and cycle starts over

19
Q

what are the components of the intervertebral disc?

A

Nucleus pulposus and the annulus fibrosus

20
Q

there are no to few cells in the nucleus pulposus after what age?

A

after the 20’s

21
Q

what is the structure of the intervertebal disc?

A

a lot of HA (lots of water) and collagen II

22
Q

what is the function of the nucleus pulposus?

A

to resist compressive forces

23
Q

the annulus fibrosis is where you have what?

A

fibrocartilage

24
Q

what is the structure of the annulus fibrosis?

A

lots of collagen I and some hyaline matrix (collagen II)

25
Q

what are the cells in the annulus fibrosis?

A

some fibrocytes and chondrocytes

26
Q

what is the function of the annulus fibrosis?

A

to support the nucleus pulposus

27
Q

Age related degenerative changed happen to IVD when?

A

as age increases (often 40+ yrs of age)

28
Q

There will be more collagen II or Collagen I in age-related degenerative changes to IVD?

A

more collagen II (due to chondrocytes)

29
Q

Age-related degeneration of IVD will cause the nucleus pulposus to do what with its water content?

A

to decrease its water content

30
Q

In age-related degeneration of IVD chondrocytes make more what?

A

aggrecans molecule to try and add structure but still to weak