Chapter 7: circulatory system (Heart) (exam 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: circulatory system (Heart) (exam 2) Deck (47)
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1
Q

the circulatory system consists of what two systems?

A

the cardiovascular system to carry blood and the lymphatic system to collect and transport lymph

2
Q

what are the layers of the heart

A

Endocardium, myocardium, pericardium, pericardial sac, pericardial cavity, general valve, cardiac skeleton

3
Q

Endocardium has what type of endothelium?

A

simple squamous one layer thick

4
Q

what type of loose connective tissue is found in the endocardium?

A

fibroelastic ct

5
Q

in the more dense regular ct layer what typed of fibers are found?

A

more collagen I and elastic fibers as well as some smooth muscle

6
Q

The sub endocardial layer is composed of what?

A

looser CT with blood vessels, nerves and purkinje fibers

7
Q

in the heart purkinje fibers are modified what?

A

cardiac myocytes

8
Q

in the sub-endocardial layer where are myofibrils found?

A

in the peripheral and are few in numbers

9
Q

what is stored in the sub endocardial layer

A

glycogen

10
Q

the sub-endocardial layer is attached to the endocardium via what?

A

Gap-junctions

11
Q

what is the function of a sub-endocardial layer?

A

to transmit contraction impulse rapidly

12
Q

What layer is the atria and ventricle found in

A

Myocardium

13
Q

compared to the ventricle, the atria has more what and less what?

A

has more elastic fibers and more muscles

14
Q

the ventricle, compared to the atria, has a well developed what?

A

well developed muscular layer

15
Q

The intercalated disc is found in which layer

A

in the myocardium

16
Q

what are the two portions of the intercalated disc structure?

A

longitudinal portion and transverse portion

17
Q

What is found in the transverse portion of the myocardium

A

macula adherens (desmosomes)
fascia adherens
small gap junctions

18
Q

what is found in the longitudinal portion

A

large gap junction for movement

19
Q

What is the function of the myocardium

A
  1. attach cardiac myocytes in a row
  2. attach and stabilize myofibrils (actin/myosin)
  3. cell to cell communication
20
Q

What will sympathetics do to the heart rate and contraction

A

heart rate will increase and contraction will increases

21
Q

what will parasympathetics do to the heart rate and contraction?

A

they will both decrease

22
Q

Specialized cardiac muscle cells are known as

A

myoendocrine cells

23
Q

Myoendocrine cells will secrete hormones in what region

A

in the atria

24
Q

were will hormones be released into

A

surrounding capillaries

25
Q

what is the function of hormones secreted by myoendocrine cells

A

to influence fluid and electrolytes balance

influence in decreasing BP

26
Q

when influencing the fluid balance what is the target organ

A

kidney

27
Q

when influencing the decrease in blood pressure what is the target?

A

small arteries and arterioles

28
Q

The pericardium is also known as what

A

serous pericardium

29
Q

what are the two layers of the pericardium

A

epicardium (visceral pericardium) and parietal pericardium

30
Q

what are the two layers in the epicardium

A

sub-epicardium and mesothelium

31
Q

the sub-epicardium is a layer of what CT

A

fibroelastic CT

32
Q

the sub-epicardium contains what

A

coronary vessels, nerves, and sometimes lots of adipose

33
Q

what is secreted from the mesothelium layer

A

secretes serous lubricating fluid

34
Q

the parietal pericardium is composed of what?

A

mesothelium and a layer of fibroelastic ct

35
Q

the pericardial sac is composed of what two layers

A

fibrous and parietal pericardium

36
Q

The pericardial cavity holds how much fluid

A

30-50 ml

37
Q

the pericardial sac is between what two layers

A

visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium

38
Q

Valves are composed of what tissue

A

endothelium with dense irregular CT

39
Q

the Dense irregular CT of valves have many what

A

collagen I and elastic fibers

40
Q

are the valves of the heart vascular or avascular

A

almost avascular

41
Q

what is the cardiac skeleton made out of

A

dense fibrous CT

42
Q

What are the three main components of the cardiac skeleton

A

annuli fibrosi
trigonum fibrosum
septum membranaceum

43
Q

the annuli fibrous is found around what?

A

the base of the aorta, pulmonary artery and the opening to the chambers

44
Q

the trigonum fibrous is found by what

A

by cusps of aortic valve

45
Q

the septum membranaceum is found where

A

upper portion of inter ventricular septum

46
Q

the function of the septum membranaceum is what

A

1) support

2) origin/insertion for cardiac monocytes

47
Q

chordae Tendinae are tendon-like so therefore the CT type is what?

A

dense regular