Chapter 4 - Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Flashcards Preview

Psych 305 > Chapter 4 - Classification, Assessment, and Treatment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Deck (18):

Advantages of classification

1) Predictions - can predict future behavior, know what to expect
2) Communication - means to communicate among clinicians
3) Research - provides research categories
4) Stats - provide basis for epidemiological records -> increase understanding


Disadvantages of classification

1) Puts label on people, produces social stigma, can be self-fulfilling prophecy
2) Categories not perfect - much overlap across categories
3) Diagnoses may not be reliable/consistent - diff clinicians -> diff conclusions, variations in client behavs over time
4) Subjectivity of diagnostic categories


Examples of subjectivity of diagnostic categories

*Passive Aggressive Personality Disorder
*Road Rage disorder


Changes in DSM-5

*Categorical -> Dimensional
*Move away from distinct categories
*Scales: none, slight, mild, moderate, severe
*Purpose: increase reliability and validity
*Criticisms: may decrease reliability/validity, pathologizing behavior that would not be previously diagnosed, more patients treatable -> can be medicated -> $$$$
*Collapsed across 3 axes: diagnoses, severity, additional info
*Added causal specifiers - biological, genetic, environmental, developmental, social, cultural, behavioral
*Cultural section - symptoms vary across cultures


Evolution of DSM

Early editions: psychodynamically oriented
Version III: more medical approach -> multiaxial, 5 axes (primary diagnosis, personality disorders, relevant physical disorders, psychosocial/environmental stressors, global assessment of functioning)


Reliability of classification

Diagnosis on same client consistent over different clinicians, consistent over time


Validity of classification

Does it group people together with the same cause of symptoms and same effective treatments


Types of interview assessments

*Therapeutic: include both assessment and therapy
*Assessment: get overall picture of person, assess both verbal and nonverbal
*Structured: preestablished questions/format, standardized, closed-ended answers


"Intelligence" tests

Measure intellectual functioning and speed of cog functioning
*Highly standardized, admin and scoring
*Verbal and spatial reasoning/functioning


Personality Assessments

*Objective test: MMPI
*Projective test: psychodynamic orientation - assumes that given an ambiguous stimulus, individual will project unconscious elements of personality onto stimulus (Rorschach, TAT, CAT)


Behavioral Assessment

Observe/record frequency/duration of target behavior


Cognitive assessment

Measure thoughts/beliefs, attitudes, etc. Questionnaires, self-measuring, interviews


Relational assessment

Context of behavior


Bodily assessment

Measure physiological functioning - skin conductance, BP, arousal, brain imaging


Reliability of assessment instruments

Consistency of measure
*Test/Retest: scores at t1 consistent with t2
*Internal consistency: consistency within measure - confident that all items in measure yield similar results. Rules out "rogue" items


Validity of assessment instruments

Is the test measuring what I want it to?
*Predictive: predict behavior measured?
*Construct: depict complex phenomenon set out to measure
*Content: cover all important facets/aspects of what you are measuring
*Face: does it look like it will measure what it measures


Cultural issues in assessment

Constructs not equivalent cross-culturally (like intelligence) - scores on some measures may not be equivalent/comparable to same scores on different cultural samples


Cultural issues in diagnosis

Behavior associated with disorder in 1 culture may not be abnormal in another culture