Flashcards in chapter 4 - histology Deck (157):
the study of tissues
the four major types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
the tissue that covers, lines, and secretes
the tissue that contracts to cause movement
the tissue that conducts electrical messages
the tissue that holds things together and fills in spaces
a group of cells working together
the type of microscope that is used most in histology
tiny microscopic cell extensions that increase the surface area of cells to help with absorption and secretion
cell extensions that sweep materials along the cell surface
longer cell extensions with unknown function
Where in the body is known for having many microvilli?
Where in the body is known for having many cilia
Where in the body is known for having stereocilia?
inner ear and male reproductive tract
the term meaning having no blood vessels
the term meaning having a blood supply
What major tissue type is avascular?
How does the epithelium get its nutrition?
diffusion from the CT beneath it
What is the name of the layer that separates the epithelium from the CT?
What are the two layers of the basement membrane?
basal lamina and reticular lamina
What term is used to describe epithelial cells (particularly columnar) that are empty at the top and full of organelles at the bottom
the specialized connections between epithelial cells
Name the three types of epithelial cell junctions.
1. gap junctions
2. tight junctions
Which cell junction is a passageway allowing chemical communication between cells?
Which cell junction is water proof due to the fusion of the lipid layers?
Which cell junction is reinforced with fibers to make it exceptionally strong?
What is a common place to find gap junctions?
smooth and cardiac muscle
What is a common place to find tight junctions?
What is a common place to find desmosomes?
skin and cardiac muscle
the ability of a tissue to regrow
the three shapes of epithelial tissue
1. squamous - flat
2. cuboidal - equally tall as wide
3. columnar - taller than wide
the two most common layering arrangements in epithelium
simple - 1 layer
stratified - many layers
the bottom of epithelium - attached surface
the exposed or unattached surface of epithelium
epithelium that can stretch or distend
Where is transitional epithelium found?
Which is more protective, simple or stratified epithelia?
Name the two major types of simple squamous epithelium.
1. endothelium - inner covering
2. mesothelium - middle covering
Where is endothelium found? Why?
lining cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels to allow diffusion
Where is mesothelim found? Why?
serous membranes - to be slippery
Why is simple squamous the right tissue for alveoli of lungs and capillaries?
to allow diffusion
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium always topped with?
Why does pseudostratified epithelium appear layered?
nuclei are at various heights but each cell actually touches the basement membrane
the cells that are reproducing (2 terms)
1. stem cells
2. germinative cells (germ cells)
Where in your body do you have stratified squamous epithelium?
skin, lining of mouth and throat, lining of anus, lining of vagina - places with abrasion
What is the difference between keratinized and non-keratinized epithelia?
keratinized - waterproof and dry - filled with keratin
a group of cells that secrete
a unicellular gland
What do goblet cells produce, and what is the function?
mucus - lubricate, prevent drying, trap dirt
Name the two major types of multicellular glands.
glands with ducts to dump their secretions onto an epithelial surface
glands without ducts, secretions called hormones go into the blood to travel around the entire body
Name the three functional types of exocrine glands.
Which exocrine secretion is the most watery because it is produced only by exocytosis of secretory vesicles? Give 2 examples.
Which exocrine gland is thicker because part of the cytoplasm is released with the secretion? Give 2 examples.
1. apocrine sweat - armpits and anogenital area
2. breast milk
Why does apocrine sweat stink unlike merocrine sweat?
bacteria feed on apocrine sweat, and the bacteria stink
Which exocrine gland secretion is the thickest? Give an example.
1. oil (sebum)
Why do holocrine glands have so much mitosis going on?
The cells need to be replaced.
What is the study of cells that fall off?
Name two tests that are examples of exfoliative cytology, and say what each studies.
1. Pap smear - tests for cervical cancer
2. amniocentesis - tests for chromosome errors in developing babies
Name the three major types of connective tissue (CT).
1. CT proper
2. fluid CT
3. supporting CT
Name the two major types of CT proper, and give examples of each.
1. loose CT proper - adipose (fat)
2. dense CT proper - ligaments and tendons
Name the two types of dense CT proper, and explain how they get their names with examples.
1. dense regular - fibers run in same direction
- ligaments and tendons
2. dense irregular - fibers run in multiple directions
- joint capsule
Name two examples of supporting CT, and explain how they are related.
1. cartilage - flexible
2. bone - calcified (hardened)
Bone begins as cartilage.
Name two examples of fluid CT, and explain how they are related.
1. blood - in blood vessels
2. lymph - in lymphatic vessels
Lymph is formed by blood plasma that leaks out of blood vessels, bathes tissues to give them nutrients and oxygen, and then is picked up and filtered through the lymph nodes
embryonic CT - where all adult CT begins
What is the one CT that is avascular, and how does this have an effect on this tissue?
cartilage - doesn't heal well
What are the three types of fibers in CT? Describe each.
1. collagen - straight and strong
2. elastic - thin and flexible, snap back
3. reticular - extensive, fine and branched
What is the fluid in CT? What is it like, and why?
ground substance - viscous to slow bacterial movement
together, the fibers and ground substance make up the what of CT?
immature CT cells that produce fibers
immature cartilage cells/mature cartilage cells
immature bone cells/mature bone cells
immature blood cell that makes all other blood cells
hematopoietic stem cell
large white blood cells that eat germs and stay in one place - large white blood cells that eat germs and move around
fixed macrophages - free macrophages
small white blood cells that eat germs
cells that make histamine and heparin to cause swelling
white blood cells that make antibodies
cells that produce a brown, black pigment
another name for loose CT
another name for dense CT
What is the difference between brown fat and yellow or white fat
brown fat - baby fat - has many mitochondria and a good blood supply for warming babies that can't shiver
What about adipocytes makes it hard to lose weight but easy to gain weight?
When adipocytes shrink, they send messages to your body to slow down your metabolism because they think you are starving. Mesenchyme will readily make new fat cells.
Where does the fat come from that fills the adipocytes?
taking in more calories than you burn - store excess as fat
Why do fat cells look empty?
The lipid droplet pushes the organelles out of the middle along the edge.
What are the functions of stored fat?
insulate, cushion, store energy
Where does fat accumulate?
any areolar tissue - superficial fascia
What connects bone to bone?
What connects muscle to bone?
a sheetlike tendon
Name the three major types of cartilage, and describe each.
1. hyaline cartilage - glassy appearance - can't see fibers
2. elastic cartilage - very flexible due to elastic fibers
3. fibrocartilage - very tough due to collagen
Which type of cartilage is the most common? Where is it found
hyaline - at ends of bones, between ribs and sternum
Give three places we find elastic cartilage.
tip of nose, ears, epiglottis
Give two places we find fibrocartilage.
intervertebral discs, knee cartilage
What are the spaces that cartilage and bone cells reside in?
What is the outer layer of a cartilage?
What is cartilage made mostly of?
What two chemicals are common in cartilage?
chondroiten sulfate and hyaluronic acid
What is the name for bone?
Give two ways bone is different from cartilage.
calcified, blood vessels (vascular)
What are the tiny passageways that connect bone cells?
What are the three formed elements in blood, and what does each do?
1. erythrocytes (RBC) - carry oxygen
2. leukocytes (WBC) - fight infection
3. platelets - clot
What makes blood different from other CT?
watery matrix - no fibers unless clotting
the liquid part of blood, contains dissolved oxygen , nutrients, hormones, wastes, antibodies...
Name and describe the three major blood vessels.
1. arteries - muscular - carry blood away from heart
2. veins - medium thick with valves - carry blood to heart
3. capillaries - thinnest - allow diffusion - connect arteries and veins
Which formed element should be most numerous in blood?
When do WBC become more numerous?
Why are there so many types of WBC?
different types of inections
Name the two cell types in nerve tissue, and tell what each does.
1. neurons - conduct messages
2. neuroglia - support, feed, and protect neurons
What are the three major parts of a typical neuron?
1. cell body (soma or perikaryon) - holds most organelles
2. axons - large fibers that carry messages away from cell body
3. dendrites - smaller and more numerous fibers that bring message into cell body
Name the three major types of muscle tissue.
1. cardiac - heart
2. skeletal - attached to bones
3. smooth - in hollow organs
Which muscle is striated, voluntary, multinucleate, cylinders?
Which muscle is striated, involuntary, uninucleate and branched with intercalated discs?
Which muscle in nonstriated, involuntary, uninucleate, and fusiform (torpedo-shaped)
What word means under conscious control?
What word means not under conscious control?
What word means banded or striped?
What are the specialized connections in cardiac cells - made of gap junctions and desmosomes?
What type of membrane lines cavities that open to the outside? Give examples.
mucous - respiratory and digestive mucosa
What type of membrane lines cavities that do not open to the outside? Give examples.
serous - peritoneum, pericardium, pleural
What is the membrane that makes up your skin?
What is the membrane around your joints?
What are the three steps in healing?
1. inflammation rushes materials to the site
2. organization - restores blood supply and
3. regeneration and fibrosis - closes wound
Do all tissues repair at the same level? What ones repair well? What ones don't repair at all?
no - epithelium, loose CT, dense irregular CT, and blood regenerate well - heart and brain - don't repair at all
What are 3 cells that move to a wound to begin the healing?
white blood cells to eat germs
fibroblasts to make fibers
epithelial germ cells to make new skin
Why is it good for a wound to bleed a little?
flush out the germs
The clot that dries on the surface and stops the bleeding
the healing tissue, pink with tiny capillaries
What does scar tissue do to organs and joints?
scar tissue connecting adjacent abdominopelvic organs
a fertilized egg
the early cell divisions
the three primary germ layers and what each becomes
endoderm - respiratory and digestive lining (mucosae)
ectoderm - skin and nerves
mesoderm - muscle and bone
What tissue forms from all three germ layers? Name them.
a tumor or new growth
a non-cancerous tumor
a cancerous tumor
the spreading of a cancer to a new location - how does it often spread
metastasis - often through lymphatics
cancer causing factors
a cancer doctor
removing a sample tissue to look for cancer
when there are no longer any signs of cancer
a description of how progressed the cancer is
the three most common treatments for cancer
Why do cancer treatments have so many side effects?
kill healthy cells
cancers of epithelia - 90%
cancers of CT and muscle
neoplasms in glands whether or not malignant
a very large scar
an inherited condition of abnormal CT - extremely tall with long fingers... and weak heart and blood vessels
CT right under the skin - 3 terms
subcutaneous layer, hypodermis or superficial fascia