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Flashcards in chapter 4 - histology Deck (157):
1

the study of tissues

histology

2

the four major types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve

3

the tissue that covers, lines, and secretes

epithelial

4

the tissue that contracts to cause movement

muscle

5

the tissue that conducts electrical messages

nerve

6

the tissue that holds things together and fills in spaces

connective

7

a group of cells working together

tissue

8

the type of microscope that is used most in histology

electron microscope

9

tiny microscopic cell extensions that increase the surface area of cells to help with absorption and secretion

microvilli

10

cell extensions that sweep materials along the cell surface

cilia

11

longer cell extensions with unknown function

stereocilia

12

Where in the body is known for having many microvilli?

small intestine

13

Where in the body is known for having many cilia

airways

14

Where in the body is known for having stereocilia?

inner ear and male reproductive tract

15

the term meaning having no blood vessels

avascular

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the term meaning having a blood supply

vascular

17

What major tissue type is avascular?

epithelial

18

How does the epithelium get its nutrition?

diffusion from the CT beneath it

19

What is the name of the layer that separates the epithelium from the CT?

basement membrane

20

What are the two layers of the basement membrane?

basal lamina and reticular lamina

21

What term is used to describe epithelial cells (particularly columnar) that are empty at the top and full of organelles at the bottom

polar

22

the specialized connections between epithelial cells

cell junctions

23

Name the three types of epithelial cell junctions.

1. gap junctions
2. tight junctions
3. desmosomes

24

Which cell junction is a passageway allowing chemical communication between cells?

gap junction

25

Which cell junction is water proof due to the fusion of the lipid layers?

tight junction

26

Which cell junction is reinforced with fibers to make it exceptionally strong?

desmosome

27

What is a common place to find gap junctions?

smooth and cardiac muscle

28

What is a common place to find tight junctions?

digestive tract

29

What is a common place to find desmosomes?

skin and cardiac muscle

30

the ability of a tissue to regrow

regeneration

31

the three shapes of epithelial tissue

1. squamous - flat
2. cuboidal - equally tall as wide
3. columnar - taller than wide

32

the two most common layering arrangements in epithelium

simple - 1 layer
stratified - many layers

33

the bottom of epithelium - attached surface

basal surface

34

the exposed or unattached surface of epithelium

apical surface

35

falsely layered

pseudostratified

36

epithelium that can stretch or distend

transitional

37

Where is transitional epithelium found?

urinary bladder

38

Which is more protective, simple or stratified epithelia?

stratified

39

Name the two major types of simple squamous epithelium.

1. endothelium - inner covering
2. mesothelium - middle covering

40

Where is endothelium found? Why?

lining cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels to allow diffusion

41

Where is mesothelim found? Why?

serous membranes - to be slippery

42

Why is simple squamous the right tissue for alveoli of lungs and capillaries?

to allow diffusion

43

What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium always topped with?

cilia

44

Why does pseudostratified epithelium appear layered?

nuclei are at various heights but each cell actually touches the basement membrane

45

the cells that are reproducing (2 terms)

1. stem cells
2. germinative cells (germ cells)

46

Where in your body do you have stratified squamous epithelium?

skin, lining of mouth and throat, lining of anus, lining of vagina - places with abrasion

47

What is the difference between keratinized and non-keratinized epithelia?

keratinized - waterproof and dry - filled with keratin

48

a group of cells that secrete

gland

49

a unicellular gland

goblet cell

50

What do goblet cells produce, and what is the function?

mucus - lubricate, prevent drying, trap dirt

51

Name the two major types of multicellular glands.

1. endocrine
2. exocrine

52

glands with ducts to dump their secretions onto an epithelial surface

exocrine

53

glands without ducts, secretions called hormones go into the blood to travel around the entire body

endocrine

54

Name the three functional types of exocrine glands.

1. merocrine
2. apocrine
3. holocrine

55

Which exocrine secretion is the most watery because it is produced only by exocytosis of secretory vesicles? Give 2 examples.

merocrine (eccrine)
1. perspiration
2. saliva

56

Which exocrine gland is thicker because part of the cytoplasm is released with the secretion? Give 2 examples.

apocrine
1. apocrine sweat - armpits and anogenital area
2. breast milk

57

Why does apocrine sweat stink unlike merocrine sweat?

bacteria feed on apocrine sweat, and the bacteria stink

58

Which exocrine gland secretion is the thickest? Give an example.

holocrine
1. oil (sebum)

59

Why do holocrine glands have so much mitosis going on?

The cells need to be replaced.

60

What is the study of cells that fall off?

exfoliative cytology

61

Name two tests that are examples of exfoliative cytology, and say what each studies.

1. Pap smear - tests for cervical cancer
2. amniocentesis - tests for chromosome errors in developing babies

62

Name the three major types of connective tissue (CT).

1. CT proper
2. fluid CT
3. supporting CT

63

Name the two major types of CT proper, and give examples of each.

1. loose CT proper - adipose (fat)
2. dense CT proper - ligaments and tendons

64

Name the two types of dense CT proper, and explain how they get their names with examples.

1. dense regular - fibers run in same direction
- ligaments and tendons
2. dense irregular - fibers run in multiple directions
- joint capsule

65

Name two examples of supporting CT, and explain how they are related.

1. cartilage - flexible
2. bone - calcified (hardened)
Bone begins as cartilage.

66

Name two examples of fluid CT, and explain how they are related.

1. blood - in blood vessels
2. lymph - in lymphatic vessels
Lymph is formed by blood plasma that leaks out of blood vessels, bathes tissues to give them nutrients and oxygen, and then is picked up and filtered through the lymph nodes

67

embryonic CT - where all adult CT begins

mesenchyme

68

What is the one CT that is avascular, and how does this have an effect on this tissue?

cartilage - doesn't heal well

69

What are the three types of fibers in CT? Describe each.

1. collagen - straight and strong
2. elastic - thin and flexible, snap back
3. reticular - extensive, fine and branched

70

What is the fluid in CT? What is it like, and why?

ground substance - viscous to slow bacterial movement

71

together, the fibers and ground substance make up the what of CT?

matrix

72

immature CT cells that produce fibers

fibroblasts

73

immature cartilage cells/mature cartilage cells

chondroblasts/chondrocytes

74

immature bone cells/mature bone cells

osteoblasts/osteocytes

75

immature blood cell that makes all other blood cells

hematopoietic stem cell

76

large white blood cells that eat germs and stay in one place - large white blood cells that eat germs and move around

fixed macrophages - free macrophages

77

small white blood cells that eat germs

microphages

78

cells that make histamine and heparin to cause swelling

mast cells

79

white blood cells that make antibodies

lymphocytes

80

cells that produce a brown, black pigment

melanocyte

81

fat cell

adipocyte

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another name for loose CT

areolar

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another name for dense CT

collagenous

84

swelling

edema

85

What is the difference between brown fat and yellow or white fat

brown fat - baby fat - has many mitochondria and a good blood supply for warming babies that can't shiver

86

What about adipocytes makes it hard to lose weight but easy to gain weight?

When adipocytes shrink, they send messages to your body to slow down your metabolism because they think you are starving. Mesenchyme will readily make new fat cells.

87

Where does the fat come from that fills the adipocytes?

taking in more calories than you burn - store excess as fat

88

Why do fat cells look empty?

The lipid droplet pushes the organelles out of the middle along the edge.

89

What are the functions of stored fat?

insulate, cushion, store energy

90

Where does fat accumulate?

any areolar tissue - superficial fascia

91

What connects bone to bone?

ligament

92

What connects muscle to bone?

tendon

93

a sheetlike tendon

aponeurosis

94

Name the three major types of cartilage, and describe each.

1. hyaline cartilage - glassy appearance - can't see fibers
2. elastic cartilage - very flexible due to elastic fibers
3. fibrocartilage - very tough due to collagen

95

Which type of cartilage is the most common? Where is it found

hyaline - at ends of bones, between ribs and sternum

96

Give three places we find elastic cartilage.

tip of nose, ears, epiglottis

97

Give two places we find fibrocartilage.

intervertebral discs, knee cartilage

98

What are the spaces that cartilage and bone cells reside in?

lacunae

99

What is the outer layer of a cartilage?

perichondrium

100

What is cartilage made mostly of?

water

101

What two chemicals are common in cartilage?

chondroiten sulfate and hyaluronic acid

102

What is the name for bone?

osseous tissue

103

Give two ways bone is different from cartilage.

calcified, blood vessels (vascular)

104

What are the tiny passageways that connect bone cells?

canaliculi

105

What are the three formed elements in blood, and what does each do?

1. erythrocytes (RBC) - carry oxygen
2. leukocytes (WBC) - fight infection
3. platelets - clot

106

What makes blood different from other CT?

watery matrix - no fibers unless clotting

107

the liquid part of blood, contains dissolved oxygen , nutrients, hormones, wastes, antibodies...

plasma

108

Name and describe the three major blood vessels.

1. arteries - muscular - carry blood away from heart
2. veins - medium thick with valves - carry blood to heart
3. capillaries - thinnest - allow diffusion - connect arteries and veins

109

Which formed element should be most numerous in blood?

RBC

110

When do WBC become more numerous?

when sick

111

Why are there so many types of WBC?

different types of inections

112

Name the two cell types in nerve tissue, and tell what each does.

1. neurons - conduct messages
2. neuroglia - support, feed, and protect neurons

113

What are the three major parts of a typical neuron?

1. cell body (soma or perikaryon) - holds most organelles
2. axons - large fibers that carry messages away from cell body
3. dendrites - smaller and more numerous fibers that bring message into cell body

114

Name the three major types of muscle tissue.

1. cardiac - heart
2. skeletal - attached to bones
3. smooth - in hollow organs

115

Which muscle is striated, voluntary, multinucleate, cylinders?

skeletal

116

Which muscle is striated, involuntary, uninucleate and branched with intercalated discs?

cardiac

117

Which muscle in nonstriated, involuntary, uninucleate, and fusiform (torpedo-shaped)

smooth

118

What word means under conscious control?

voluntary

119

What word means not under conscious control?

involuntary

120

What word means banded or striped?

striated

121

What are the specialized connections in cardiac cells - made of gap junctions and desmosomes?

intercalated discs

122

What type of membrane lines cavities that open to the outside? Give examples.

mucous - respiratory and digestive mucosa

123

What type of membrane lines cavities that do not open to the outside? Give examples.

serous - peritoneum, pericardium, pleural

124

What is the membrane that makes up your skin?

cutaneous membrane

125

What is the membrane around your joints?

synovial membrane

126

What are the three steps in healing?

1. inflammation rushes materials to the site
2. organization - restores blood supply and
3. regeneration and fibrosis - closes wound

127

Do all tissues repair at the same level? What ones repair well? What ones don't repair at all?

no - epithelium, loose CT, dense irregular CT, and blood regenerate well - heart and brain - don't repair at all

128

What are 3 cells that move to a wound to begin the healing?

white blood cells to eat germs
fibroblasts to make fibers
epithelial germ cells to make new skin

129

Why is it good for a wound to bleed a little?

flush out the germs

130

The clot that dries on the surface and stops the bleeding

scab

131

the healing tissue, pink with tiny capillaries

granulation tissue

132

scarring

fibrosis

133

What does scar tissue do to organs and joints?

impairs function

134

scar tissue connecting adjacent abdominopelvic organs

adhesions

135

a fertilized egg

zygote

136

the early cell divisions

cleavage

137

the three primary germ layers and what each becomes

endoderm - respiratory and digestive lining (mucosae)
ectoderm - skin and nerves
mesoderm - muscle and bone

138

What tissue forms from all three germ layers? Name them.

epithelium
mesothelium
endothelium

139

a tumor or new growth

neoplasm

140

a non-cancerous tumor

benign

141

a cancerous tumor

malignant

142

the spreading of a cancer to a new location - how does it often spread

metastasis - often through lymphatics

143

cancer causing factors

carcinogens

144

cancer genes

oncogenes/protooncogenes

145

a cancer doctor

oncologist

146

removing a sample tissue to look for cancer

biopsy

147

when there are no longer any signs of cancer

remission

148

a description of how progressed the cancer is

staging

149

the three most common treatments for cancer

surgery
radiation
chemotherapy

150

Why do cancer treatments have so many side effects?

kill healthy cells

151

cancers of epithelia - 90%

carcinomas

152

cancers of CT and muscle

sarcomas

153

neoplasms in glands whether or not malignant

adenomas

154

a very large scar

keloid

155

an inherited condition of abnormal CT - extremely tall with long fingers... and weak heart and blood vessels

Maran's syndrome

156

CT right under the skin - 3 terms

subcutaneous layer, hypodermis or superficial fascia

157

CT between muscles and organs

deep fascia