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Flashcards in chapter 7 the skeleton Deck (89):
1

the skull, vertebrae, sternum and ribs make up what division of the skeletal system

axial skeleton

2

the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the limbs make up what division of the skeletal system

appendicular skeleton

3

the brain case

cranium

4

what suture separates the frontal from the parietal bones

coronal suture

5

what suture separates the two parietal bones

the sagittal suture

6

what suture separates the parietal from the temporal bones

the squamosal suture

7

what suture separates the parietals from the occipital

the lambdoidal suture

8

what suture runs down the middle of the frontal bone

metopic suture

9

the bones that form the roof of the skull

parietal

10

the bones that form the sides of the skull

temporal

11

the bone that forms the forehead

frontal

12

the bone that forms the back of the skull

occipital

13

the bat-shaped bone that forms most of the floor of the cranium, keystone bone of cranium

spennoid

14

the cranial bone that forms the roof of the nose

ethmoid

15

the three prominent levels of depressions within the cranium, house the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes of the brain

anterior fossa, middle fossa, posterior fossa

16

the upper portion of the cranium or cranial vault

calvaria

17

the eye sockets

orbits

18

air filled cavities within the skull bones

sinuses

19

Name 3 functions of the paranasal sinuses.

lighten skull
make mucus
resonate sound

20

Name 3 functions of the mucus in the paranasal sinuses.

warm
moisten
filter air

21

a hole in a bone that serves as the passageway for blood vessels and nerves

foramen (foramina)

22

a shallow depression in a bone

fossa

23

what is the general purpose of bone projections?

connections for tendons and ligaments

24

bones that form the bridge of the nose

nasal

25

cheekbones

zygomatic

26

upper jaw

maxillae

27

lower jaw

mandible

28

shell-shaped bones inside the nose

nasal conchae

29

bones in the medial orbit

lacrimal

30

bone that forms the base of the nose

vomer

31

bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate

palatine

32

the three ear bones

1. hammer - malleus
2. anvil - incus
3. stirrup - stapes

33

What is the smallest bone in the body?

stapes

34

the bone that doesn't articulate with any other bones but instead serves as attachment for the tongue

hyoid

35

the site of the pituitary gland

sella turcica

36

the holes for the olfactory nerves

olfactory foramina

37

the site of the olfactory foramina

cribiform plate

38

the ridge in the center of the cribiform plate for the meninges to attach

crista gali

39

irregular shaped bones within the sutures

sutural (Wormian) bones

40

the part of the ethmoid bone that forms the bony part of the nasal septum

perpendicular plate

41

What 4 skull bones contain sinuses?

frontal, maxillae, ethmoid, sphenoid

42

How many vertebrae do humans have? How many are in each region?

24 total
- 7 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar

43

What separates the individual vertebrae?

intervertebral discs

44

What holds bone to bone?

ligaments

45

What holds muscle to bone?

tendons

46

the tail bone

coccyx

47

the posterior part of the pelvis

sacrum

48

Name the 4 vertebral curves, and describe the curve direction.

cervical - anterior curvature
thoracic - posterior curvature
lumbar - anterior curvature
sacral - posterior curvature

49

Which 2 curves are called primary curves?

thoracic and lumbar

50

Which 2 curves are called secondary curves?

cervical and lumbar

51

What is the purpose of secondary curves?

support weight of body
cervical - head
lumbar - body

52

an abnormal lateral curvature

scoliosis

53

an exaggerated lumbar curvature (swaback)

lordosis

54

an exaggerated thoracic curviture (hunchback)

kyphosis

55

the inner part of an intervertebral disc

nucleus pulposis

56

the outer part of an intervertebral disc

annulus fibrosis

57

a bulging intervertebral disc

herniated disc (prolapsed)

58

the weight bearing part of the vertebra

body (centrum)

59

the hole in the vertebra through which the spinal cord travels

vertebral foramen

60

the bony part of the vertebra that encircles the spinal cord

vertebral arch

61

the two parts of the vertebral arch

pedicles and laminae

62

the holes between the vertebrae where spinal verves leave the spinal cord

intervertebral foramina

63

Name 5 unique features of cervical vertebrae.

1. small
2. oval bodies
3. triangular vertebral foramina
4. bifid spinous process
5. transverse foramen

64

the specific name for C1 - what makes it unique?

atlas - no body

65

the specific name for C2 - what makes it unique

axis - dens or odontoid process

66

the specific name for C7 - what makes it unique

vertebral prominens - longest, non-bifid spinous process

67

What does the joint between the atlas and the occipital bone allow?

nodding yes

68

What does the joint between the atlas and the axis allow?

shaking head no

69

What connects the vertebral prominens to the occipital protuberance? What damages this connection?

ligamentum nuchae - whiplash

70

What 5 things make thoracic vertebrae unique?

1. heart-shaped body
2. circular vertebral foramen
3. transverse processes point posteriorly
4. extra facets for ribs
5. long spinous processes

71

What 3 things make lumbar vertebrae unique?

1. largest body
2. short, thick processes
3. large, hatchet-shaped spinous processes

72

the tailbone

coccyx

73

How many fused vertebrae make up the sacrum?

5

74

How many fused vertebrae make up the coccyx?

3-5

75

What makes up the thoracic cage?

thoracic vertebrae, sternum, ribs and costal cartilage

76

the spaces between the ribs

intercostal space

77

the cartilage that holds the ribs to the sternum

costal cartilage

78

the three parts of the sternum

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

79

When does the xiphoid process ossify?

by age 40

80

the first 7 pairs of ribs (2 names)

true ribs or vertebrosternal

81

rib pairs 8-12

flase ribs

82

ribs 8-10

vertebrochondral ribs

83

ribs 11-12 (2 names)

vertebral ribs or floating ribs

84

the shoulders

pectoral girdle

85

the hips

pelvic girdle

86

the overuse and inflammation of the wrist tendons that then compresses the median nerve causing a tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and middle finger

carpal tunnel syndrome

87

Most of the differences between the male and female pelvis have to do with what?

childbearing

88

the portion of the pelvis above the pelvic brim

false pelvis

89

the portion of the pelvis below the pelvic brim

true pelvis