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Flashcards in chapter 6 osseous tissue Deck (125):
1

what chemical makes up most of the substance of cartilage, and what characteristic does it give the cartilage?

water - resilience and flexibility (springy)

2

the dense irregular CT surrounding cartilage is called what? What does this do for the cartilage?

perichondrium - resists outward expansion

3

The cartilage itself does not have two things found in most tissues. What are they, and how does cartilage compensate for this?

blood vessels and nerves - diffusion from perichondrium

4

mature cartilage cells, immature cartilage cells

chondrocytes, chondroblasts

5

spaces where the cartilage cells reside

lacunae (lacuna)

6

What limits the thickness of cartilage?

diffusion only carries materials over short distances

7

What type of cartilage is the most common and forms the embryonic skeleton?

hyaline

8

Why do we not see the fibers in hyaline (glass) cartilage?

only fine collagen

9

Name 4 types of hyaline cartilage in the body.

1. articular cartilage
2. costal cartilage - ribs
3. respiratory cartilage - larynx, trachea
4. nasal cartilage

10

What is the flexible (bendable) cartilage, and where is it found?

elastic cartilage - ear and epiglottis

11

the cartilage with the highest tensile strength that will withstand the most compression

fibrocartilage

12

What makes fibrocartilage so tough?

thick collagen fibers

13

What makes elastic cartilage so flexible?

elastic fibers

14

Give two places to find fibrocartilage.

1. intervertebral discs
2. knee menisci

15

Why is cartilage better for the embryonic skeleton than bone?

flexible matrix allows mitosis so it can grow

16

Name and explain the two types of cartilage growth.

1. appositional - growth from perichondrium (outside)
2. interstitial from the matrix (inside)

17

When does cartilage growth usually stop?

adolescence

18

the process of depositing calcium in a tissue

calcification

19

What part of the skeleton consists of the skull, vertebrae, sternum and ribs? What does this part of the skeleton do?

axial skeleton - protects, supports and holds body parts.

20

What part of the skeleton consists of the skull, vertebrae, the shoulders and arms, hips and legs? What does this part of the skeleton do?

appendicular skeleton - locomotion (movement)

21

Name, and describe the 4 main types of bones.

long bones - longer than they are wide
short bones - boxy
flat bones - thin
irregular bones - complicated shapes

22

humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals and phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals

long bones

23

carpals and tarsals

short bones

24

scapula, ribs and most skull bones

flat bones

25

vertebrae, coxal bones

irregular bones

26

a bone that forms within a tendon - give an example

sesamoid - patella

27

a bone that forms in the sutures of the skull

sutural bones

28

Name the 6 major functions of the skeletal system.

1. supportive framework
2. protects soft organs
3. levers for movement
4. stores minerals and growth factors - calcium bank
5. makes blood cells in red marrow - hematopoiesis
6. stores fats (triglycerides) in yellow marrow

29

What are the two major functions of bone markings?

1. place for attachment of muscles, ligaments and tendons
2. pathways for blood vessels and verves

30

the solid bone made of osteons (Haversian systems)

compact bone

31

the honeycomb bone made of trabeculae

spongy bone

32

another name for spongy bone

cancellous bone

33

Where is compact bone found?

outside and diaphysis (shaft)

34

Where is spongy bone found?

inside and epiphyses (ends)

35

What are the spaces between the trabeculae filled with?

marrow

36

the shaft of the bone

diaphysis

37

the expanded ends of the bone

epiphysis - proximal and distal

38

the hollow, center of bone

medullary cavity or marrow cavity

39

the type of marrow found in the medullary cavity of adults

yellow marrow - fat

40

the thin cartilage that covers bones where they join

articular cartilage

41

the growth region of the epiphysis - Of what material is it composed?

epiphyseal plate (metaphysis) - hyaline cartilage

42

a growth plate that has finished growing - Of what material is it composed?

epiphyseal line - bone

43

the outer covering of bone

periosteum

44

the inner lining of bone - covers trabeculae

endosteum

45

mature bone cells, immature bone cells

osteocytes, osteoblasts

46

bone stem cells that mature into osteoblasts

osteoprogenitor cells (osteogenic cells)

47

white blood cells that dissolve bone

osteoclasts

48

the holes where blood vessels enter bone - what are these blood vessels called

nutrient foramina - nutrient vessels

49

the threads that adhere the periosteum to thebone

perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

50

What is the term for the spongy bone in flat bones?

diploe

51

Where in a bone does hematopoiesis (blood production) occur?

red marrow

52

What is the difference in the location of red marrow in newborns and adults? Why is this true?

more red marrow as a newborn - need to make more blood cells during growth
in adults - more yellow marrow - however, yellow can convert to red if anemic

53

What bones can we analyze red marrow in adults?

sternum and hip (coxal)

54

Name and describe the three types of lamellae.

1. concentric lamellae - share a central canal (1 osteon)
2. circumferential lamellae - around entire bone
3. interstitial lamellae - old osteons that are being remodeled

55

another name for compact bone

lamellar bone - made of lamellae

56

another name for an osteon
another name for a central canal

Haversian system
Haversian canal

57

What is the difference between compact and spongy bone at withstanding stress?

compact - best at stress in one direction
spongy - good at stress from multiple directions

58

How do osteons handle torsion (twisting stress)?

the collagen fibers within the different lamellae have their fibers running in different directions, and the calcium salts align accordingly

59

the blood vessels that connect adjacent central canals - run perpendicular to the central canals

perforating canals

60

another name for perforating canals

Volkmann's canals

61

the tiny, hairlike canals that connect adjacent osteocytes

canaliculi

62

What cell junction connects the osteocytes at the canaliculi?

gap junctions

63

What causes an osteoblast to mature into an osteocyte?

It surrounds itself with matrix and becomes trapped in a lacuna.

64

How are the trabeculae aligned within spongy bone?

along lines of stress

65

the organic part of the matrix of bone

osteoid

66

Of what 2 materials is osteoid composed?
What property does this material provide bone?

1. ground substance of proteoglycans and glycoproteins
2. collagen fibers
This gives bone its tensile strength (flexibility)

67

What is the inorganic component of bone?
What property does this material provide bone?

hydroxyapatite - mineral salts like calcium phosphate
This gives bone its hardness

68

Why do the bones need the proper balance or organic and inorganic elements?

too hard and they become brittle
too flexible and they bend

69

the process of bone formation (2 terms)

ossification or osteogenesis

70

Before week 8 of embryonic development, of what two materials is the skeleton composed?

1. fibrous membranes
2. hyaline cartilage

71

What are the two types of ossification, and what is the difference between them?

1. intramembranous ossification - in a membrane
2. endochondral ossification - in a cartilage model

72

Which type of ossification is most common? Give some example bones for this type.

endochondral - all long bones like the humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals

73

How does endochondral bone formation begin?

a periosteal bone collar forms around the perimeter of the cartilage model

74

Where does the bone begin forming in the cartilage model, and what is this area called?

diaphysis - primary ossification center

75

Where does bone formation continue within the cartilage model (after the diaphysis), and what is this area called?
When do these new areas form?

epiphysis - secondary ossification center
These form shortly after birth.

76

As the bone gets longer and wider at the diaphysis, it takes bone away from where and deposits it where? What is the result

takes away - endosteum
deposits - periosteum
The medullary (marrow) cavity enlarges and the bone stays light.

77

What is the difference between the primary and secondary ossification?

secondary doesn't make a marrow cavity
- it remains spongy bone

78

The hyaline cartilage remains in two places following secondary offification. What are they?

1. articular cartilage
2. epiphyseal plate between the diaphysis and epiphysis
(growth plate)

79

From what embryonic germ layer does bone originally form? What cells are formed from this that create the membranes and cartilage?

mesoderm - mesenchyme (embryonic stem cells for CT)

80

Around what age is the skeleton usually fully ossified? What are some of the last bones to ossify?

age 25 - carpals

81

Bone formation exceeds bode resorption through what age?

adolescence

82

Osteoblasts and clasts should work equally through what age range?

young adults - as long as active and eating a balanced diet

83

Many people start losing bone mass around what age?

40

84

"normal" bone loss

osteopenia

85

when bone loss reaches disease proportions and a person has pathologic fractures

osteoporosis

86

Why do women lose more bone mass than men?

menopause - changing levels of sex hormones

87

What happens to bone with aging?

1. less complete osteon formation
2. less complete mineralization of bone
3. diminished blood supply
4. more nonviable (dead) bone
5. fractures heal more slowly

88

What can help bone repair in elderly?

ultrasound and electrical stimulation

89

a congenital type of dwarfism with defective cartilage and poor endochondral bone growth - short limbs but membranous bones (skull) forms normally

achondroplasia

90

an abnormal projection from a bone often due to overgrowth in aging bones

spur

91

pain in a bone

ostealgia

92

inflammation of bone

osteitis

93

brittle bone disease due to inadequate collagen fibers

OI - osteogenesis imperfecta

94

inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by bacteria entering the bone from either a compound fracture or a infection spreading from near the bone

osteomyelitis

95

a bone cancer - often aggressive - can metastasize to lungs

osteosarcoma

96

a fracture in a diseased bone

pathologic fracture

97

placing sustained tension on a body region to keep it in alignment

traction

98

What kind of fractures are most common in people with osteoporosis?

1. compression fractures of the spine - hunched over
2. "hip" fracture - broken femur at the hip

99

What are the typical treatments for osteoporosis?

1. calcium supplements
2. vitamin D supplements
3. exercise
4. hormone replacement therapy - controversial due to side effects (stroke, heart attack, breast cancer)

100

How does genetics play a role in osteoporosis?

a specific gene has been found to reduce serotonin which inhibits osteoblasts

101

What are some other factors that contribute to osteoporosis?

1. petite body frame to start with
2. insufficient exercise or immobility
3. poor diet
4. abnormal vitamin D receptors
5. smoking (reduces estrogen levels)
6. diabetes
7. thyroid problems - hormones
8. carbonated beverages - leach minerals from bone

102

a disease of excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption making very thick bone in some areas and too much spongy bone in others

Paget's disease

103

a condition of soft and painful bones - poorly mineralized
due to poor diet of Ca or not enough vitamin D to absorb it

osteomalacia

104

osteomalacia in children - get really bowed legs

rickets

105

any break in a bone

fracture

106

a fracture across the long axis of a bone

transverse

107

a fracture along the long axis of a bone

linear

108

a fracture that is out of alignment and will need to be set

displaced

109

a fracture that remains in alignment

nondisplaced

110

a fracture that breaks through the skin

compound or open

111

a fracture that doesn't break through the skin

simple or closed

112

a fracture of the growth plate - what is the concern

epiphyseal fracture - bone might stop growing

113

a common sports fracture caused by twisting

spiral

114

a crushing fracture - often of vertebrae

compression

115

a fracture in a young bone where it bends

greenstick

116

a fracture with many shattered pieces

comminuted

117

a broken bone is pushed inward - common in the skull

depressed

118

a common wrist fracture upon falling - breaks radius at thumb

Colles' fracture

119

an ankle break where the medial and lateral malleolus are broken

Pott's fracture

120

the realignment of a broken bone

reduction

121

What is the difference between an open and a closed reduction?

open - surgical
closed - nonsurgical

122

What are the steps in fracture repair?

1. fracture hematoma - clots
2. fibrous callus forms
3. bony callus forms
4. remodeling

123

when bone is replaced and reshaped
Why is it necessary?

remodeling - old bone salts get brittle.

124

Why does calcium need to be removed from bones?

We need certain calcium levels in our blood for muscle and nerve function so we sometimes borrow from the bones.

125

low calcium
high calcium

hypocalcemia
hypercalcemia