chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

anatomy > chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 1 Deck (166):
1

study of body parts

anatomy

2

study of body function

physiology

3

branch of anatomy one can see without tools (2 terms)

macroscopic
gross

4

branch of anatomy where a microscope is needed to see parts

microscopic

5

the study of cells

cytology

6

the study of tissues

histology

7

the study of disease

pathology

8

the study involving imaging techniques of the body

radioogy

9

the study of early development

embryology

10

a developing baby in its earliest stages

embryo

11

a developing baby in its later stages

fetus

12

a fertilized egg

zygote

13

when cells develop unique jobs (2 terms)

cell specialization
cell differentiation

14

renal

kidney

15

pulmonary

lung

16

the idea that structure is related to function

principle of complementarity

17

the levels of organization from smallest to largest

atom - molecule - cell - tissue - organ - organ system - organism

18

the smallest living unit

cell

19

a group of cells working together

tissue

20

a group of organs working together

organ system

21

What do your skin and cell membranes do for living things?

maintain boundaries

22

What necessary life function involves muscle contraction?

movement

23

What things have to be moved internally?

blood, air, hormones...

24

an organism reacts to changes in their environment

response

25

the changes in their environment to which an organism reacts

stimuli

26

short-term responses

irritability

27

long-term responses

adaptability

28

all the chemical reactions in an organism

metabolism

29

Name the two parts of metabolism, and explain each.

1. anabolic - synthesis
2. catabolic - decomposition

30

eating

ingestion

31

breaking food down into usable pieces

digestion

32

burning food to release energy (usually with oxygen)

respiration

33

getting rid of waste

excretion

34

producing a useful chemical and releasing it (tears, saliva, digestive juice)

secretion

35

when nutrients are soaked into the blood stream and then into cells

absorption

36

when materials like oxygen, nutrients, and hormones are pumped around the body pushed by the heart

circulation

37

when tiny particles in food are recombined to make new skin or muscle

assimilation

38

body system that covers and protects, makes vitamin D and detects stimuli

integumentary

39

skin, hair, nails and glands

integumentary

40

the body system that supports, protects, provides leverage for movement and makes blood cells

skeletal

41

the body system that moves you and generates body heat

muscular

42

the body system that fights infections (2 terms)

lymphatic, immune

43

the body system that exchanges gases with the environment
What gas goes in? What comes out?

respiratory
O2 in and CO2 out

44

the body system that breaks down food into a usable form

digestive

45

the lungs, trachea, bronchi, larynx

respiratory

46

the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and lymph vessels

lymphatic or immune

47

the body system that controls by electrical messages being conducted

nervous

48

How does nervous control work?

fast, specific - jerking hand away from something hot

49

the body system that controls by chemical messages called hormones

endocrine

50

How does endocrine control work?

slow, general - puberty

51

brain, spinal cord and nerves

nervous system

52

glands like thymus, adrenal, pituitary

endocrine

53

the body system that transports materials throughout the body - 2 terms

cardiovascular
circulatory

54

the body system that filters the blood to produce waste - 2 terms

urinary
excretory

55

heart, blood vessels

circulatory
cardiovascular

56

kidneys, ureters, urethra

urinary
excretory

57

the body system that allows you to mature to adult form and have offspring

reproductive

58

uterus, ovaries, penis, testes

reproductive

59

Name 3 products of excretion.

urine, feces, CO2

60

Name 4 major nutrients.

carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

61

What is the most abundant compound in your body?

water

62

what gas allows us to burn food more efficiently

oxygen

63

respiration with oxygen

aerobic

64

respiration without oxygen

anaerobic

65

Why is it necessary to have an appropriate body temperature?

allow metabolism at a healthy rate

66

Why is it necessary to have appropriate atmospheric pressure

allow gas exchange

67

your body's stable internal environment

homeostasis

68

a circular situation where your body monitors its environment and adjusts to changes

feedback

69

Name the two types of feedback. Give examples of each.

1. negative - thermoregulation, blood pressure
2. positive - labor and delivery and blood clotting

70

Which type of feedback is common?

negative

71

Give examples where positive feedback can cause health issues to cascade and get worse.

1. heart failure
2. allergic responses

72

What are the parts of the feedback system?

stimulus is picked up by receptors
sent to control center
effectors like glands and muscles respond

73

What happens when homeostasis can not be maintained?

get sick and even die

74

What is anatomical position?

facing forward with palms forward

75

Why is anatomical position necessary?

radius and ulna are not crossed

76

Face up

supine

77

face down

prone

78

above and below

superior and inferior

79

front and back

anterior and posterior

80

another term for anterior in humans (belly)

ventral

81

another term for posterior in humans (back)

dorsal

82

middle and sides

medial and lateral

83

in between two things

intermediate

84

What two terms are only used on ther limbs?

proximal and distal

85

near trunk and far from trunk

proximal and distal

86

surface and farther inside

superficial and deep

87

the midline of the body

axial

88

the limbs

appendicular

89

head

cephalic

90

neck

cervical

91

forehead

frontal

92

eye

ocular

93

eye socket

orbital

94

nose

nasal

95

mouth

oral

96

ear

otic

97

chin

mental

98

back of head

occipital

99

entire chest

thoracic

100

breast

mammary

101

chest muscles

pectoral

102

breastbone

sternal

103

armpits

axial

104

belly

abdominal

105

belly button

umbilical

106

hips

coxal or pelvic

107

front of pelvis

pubic

108

buttock

gluteal

109

groin

inguinal

110

shoulder blade

scapular

111

top of shoulder

acromial

112

middle of back

vertebral

113

lower back

lumbar

114

back of pelvis

sacral

115

upper arm

brachial

116

forearm

antebrachial

117

elbow

cubital and olecranol

118

elbow pocket

antecubital

119

wrist

carpal

120

entire hand

manual

121

front of hand

palmar

122

hand bones

metacarpal

123

thumb

pollex

124

fingers

digital and phalangeal

125

thigh

femoral

126

knee cap

patellar

127

back of knee

popliteal

128

front of lower leg

crural

129

back of lower leg

sural

130

entire foot

pedal

131

bottom of foot

plantar

132

big toe

hallux

133

heel bone

calcaneal

134

ankle

tarsal

135

foot bones

metatarsal

136

lateral surface of lower leg

fibular or peroneal

137

a plane that cuts into superior and inferior portions - 3 terms

horizontal
cross section
transverse

138

a plane that cuts into anterior and posterior sections - 2 terms

frontal
coronal

139

a plane that cuts into left and right sections

sagittal

140

a sagittal cut in the middle - 2 terms

mid-sagittal
medial

141

a sagittal cut that is not in the middle

parasagittal

142

a diagonal cut

oblique

143

the two main body cavities

dorsal and ventral

144

the two divisions of the dorsal cavity and what is in each

cranial - brain
spinal or vertebral - spinal cord

145

the two divisions of the ventral body cavity

thoracic (chest) and abdominopelvic

146

the muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen

diaphragm

147

the two cavities in the thorax - give what is in each

pleural - lungs
pericardial - heart

148

the solid mass of tissue between the lungs and around the heart

mediastinum

149

the two divisions of the abdominopelvic cavity - give what is in each

abdomen - stomach, liver, intestines
pelvis - urinary bladder

150

another name for the ventral body cavity

coelom

151

another name for the abdominopelvic cavity

peritoneum

152

Why are there body cavities?

allow organs to expand and move

153

Why are there membranes around every organ?

make slippery to prevent friction

154

What is the difference between open and closed body cavities

open - open to the outside and could dry out so they are lined with mucous membranes

155

Give examples of open body cavities

nasal, oral, ear, anal...

156

What are the two layers of serous membranes, and what is the difference?

visceral - on organ
parietal - space away from organ

157

What is produced by serous membranes, and what is its function?

serous fluid - reduce friction

158

Inflammation in the membranes makes too much fluid and makes it hard for them to do their jobs. Name each.

pericarditis - around heart
pleuritis (pleurisy) - around lungs
peritonitis - around abdominopelvic organs
meningitis - around brain and spinal cord

159

Name the 4 abdominopelvic quadrants. Why are they used?

RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ - to give a general location

160

How are the abdominopelvic regions better? Name them.

more specific - right and left hypochondriac, right and left lumbar, right and left iliac or inguinal, epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric

161

Name and contrast the 4 most common imaging techniques.

1. X ray - uses radiation - best at bones
2. CT - uses radiation and computers to make slices
3. MRI - uses magnets and computers to make slices - safe but expensive
4. ultrasound - uses sound waves - very safe and cheap

162

How can we x-ray soft tissue?

dyes and shakes

163

What is an x-ray of the stomach and small intestine?

upper GI

164

What color should air appear on x-ray?

black

165

What is another term for an ultrasound?

sonogram, echogram

166

Where are your synovial cavities?

around your joints