chapter 8 articulations Flashcards Preview

anatomy > chapter 8 articulations > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 8 articulations Deck (97):
1

a joint

articulation

2

an immovable joint

synarthrosis

3

a slightly movable joint

amphiarthrosis

4

a freely movable joint

diarthrosis

5

immovable joints between skull bones

sutures

6

immovable joints between teeth and jaws

gomphosis

7

the ligament around the teeth

periodontal ligament

8

a ligament that holds bone to bone

syndesmosis

9

a bridge of cartilage

synchondrosis

10

a bridge of bone

synostosis

11

a pad of fibrocartilage

symphysis

12

an epiphyseal (growth) plate

synchondrosis

13

a epiphyseal line

synostosis

14

the intervertebral discs or the pubic symphysis

symphyses

15

the glassy-smooth hyaline cartilage that covers bones at joints

articular cartilage

16

the joint cavity

synovial cavity

17

the membrane that lines the joint cavity

synovial membrane

18

articular discs

meniscus

19

fluid filled sacs that cushion joints

bursae

20

an elongated bursa that houses a tendon

tendon sheath

21

cushioning within the joint cavity

fat pads

22

a bending movement, decreases the angle between bones

flexion

23

a straightening movement, increases the angle between bones

extension

24

extension past anatomical position

hyperextension

25

a movement in the frontal plane away from the midline

abduction

26

a movement in the frontal plane toward the midline

adduction

27

when the distal end of a limb moves in a circle, and the entire limb creates a cone

circumduction

28

turning of a bone on its own axis

rotation

29

movement of the radius around the ulna so the palms face up

supination

30

movement of the radius around the ulna so the palms face down

pronation

31

pulling the toes toward the shin

dorsiflexion

32

pointing the toes

plantar flexion

33

turning the sole of the foot inward

inversion

34

turning the sole of the foot outward

eversion

35

moving the thumb opposite the fingers

opposition

36

moving a body part superiorly

elevation

37

moving a body part inferiorly

depression

38

moving a body part anteriorly

protraction

39

moving a body part posteriorly

retraction

40

a joint made of two flat surfaces and a gliding motion

plane joint

41

a cylindrical piece of one bone articulates to a trough on another and allows movement in one plane only

hinge joint

42

the rounded end of one bone articulates with a sleeve on another allowing rotation in one plane

pivot joint

43

the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a shallow depression on another bone

condyloid or ellipsoidal

44

a spherical end of a bone articulates with a cup-like socket of another bone

ball and socket

45

the joint between the ulna and humerus is what type of joint

hinge

46

the atlas and axis is what type of joint

pivot

47

the carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs are what type of joints

saddle joints

48

the shoulder and hip are what type of joints

ball and socket

49

the interphalangeal joints are what type of joint

hinge

50

the intercarpal and intertarsal joints are what type of joints

plane

51

the radiocarpal joint is what type of joint

condyloid

52

the proximal radioulnar joint where the head of the radius rotates within a ring-like ligament secured to the ulna is what type of joint

pivot joint

53

the metacarpophalangeal joints are what type of joint

condyloid

54

the study of joints

arthrology

55

inflammation of the synovial membrane causing excess synovial fluid to be produced

synovitis

56

a generic term used by laypeople to indicate muscle or joint pain

rheumatism

57

replacing a diseasaed joint with an artificial one
What is an artificial joint called?

arthroplasty
prosthesis

58

softening of cartilage by the patella common in young athletes, produces a sharp pain in the knee on extension, often due to unequally strong quadriceps muscles

chondromalacia patellae

59

a type of rheumatoid arthritis that usually affects males causing the spine to become rigid

ankylosing spondylitis

60

What is the most common cartilage injury?

torn knee meniscus

61

What causes cartilage damage?

compression and shear stress at the same time

62

What do loose bodies of torn cartilage do to the joint?

interfere with functioning causing it to catch or "lock"

63

Surgery from tiny slits in the joint allowing a fiberoptic camera and tools to enter the joint without as much joint damage is called what?

arthroscopic surgery

64

What happens with removal of part of the meniscus?

less stable joint

65

What happens when the entire meniscus is removed?

early onset osteoarthritis

66

when ligaments are stretched or torn

sprain

67

Why do ligaments heal so slowly?

poorly vascular

68

If a ligament is completely ruptured, what needs to be done?

surgically repaired if possible or a graft

69

bones out of joint (2 terms)

dislocation
luxation

70

a partial dislocation

subluxation

71

What is the term for putting a dislocation back into alignment?

reduction

72

Why are the same joints often repeatedly dislocated?

joint is loosened

73

inflammation of bursa typically caused by a blow or friction

bursitis

74

inflammation of a tendon typically caused by overuse

tendonitis

75

bursitis of the prepatellar bursa

housemaid's knee or water on the knee

76

How is bursitis and tendonitis treated?

RICE, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspiration

77

an inflammation of joints causing pain and stiffness

arthritis

78

What is the difference between acute and chronic?

acute - short-term
chronic - long-term

79

the most common chronic arthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease, from wear and tear

osteoarthritis

80

a crunching noise common in OA caused by the rough surfaces rubbing

crepitus

81

a chronic inflammatory arthritis that affects more women than men and is considered autoimmune, bilaterally impacts many small joints at the same time

rheumatoid arthritis

82

a chronic arthritis more common in men, has genetic links, when uric acid accumulates in joints, typically affects one joint (often the base of the big toe)

gout or gouty arthritis

83

an inflammatory disease caused by spirochete bacteria and transmitted by ticks, starts with a bullseye rash and flu-like symptoms but can progress to neurological problems and heart irregularities, often causes joint pain and arthritis

lyme disease

84

What does healthy exercise do for young joints?

makes them stronger

85

What type of exercise is best for joints?

swimming - non-weightbearing

86

an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe

bunion

87

What is the relationship between strength and mobility in a joint?

the more it moves, the less strong
the less it moves, the more strong

88

What is the advantage of continuous passive motion to joint healing?

movement circulates nutrients and promotes healing - much better than immobilization

89

What is the difference between a shoulder separation and a shoulder dislocation?

separation - clavicle and scapula come apart
dislocation - humerus and scapula come apart

90

irritation of the jaw joint

TMJ syndrome - temporomandibular joint syndrome

91

having no planes of movement

nonaxial

92

having one plane of motion

uniaxial

93

having two planes of movement

biaxial

94

having three planes of movement

multiaxial

95

where a muscle attaches to the less movable bone

origin

96

where a muscle attaches to the more movable bone

insertion

97

what a muscle does

action