chapter 5 - integumentary system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 5 - integumentary system Deck (106):
1

your body system that includes your skin, hair, nails, and glands

integumentary

2

a skin doctor

dermatologist

3

the most superficial region of the skin

epidermis

4

of what tissue is the epidermis composed

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

5

the waterproof protein in your epidermis

keratin

6

the most numerous cells in the epidermis

keratinocytes

7

the pigment-producing cells in the epidermis

melanocytes

8

the brown/black pigment produced by your skin in the presence of sunlight

melanin

9

cancer of the melanin producing cells

melanoma

10

What makes melanoma so dangerous?

metastasizes, resistant to chemotherapy

11

the region of skin beneath the epidermis, the true skin

dermis

12

Of what tissue is the dermis composed?

dense irregular CT

13

What is the purpose of the dermis having irregular CT?

can withstand stress from multiple directions

14

What is the region of skin beneath the dermis (3 terms)?

hypodermis, superficial fascia, subcutaneous

15

Of what tissue is the hypodermis mostly composed?

loose CT - adipose

16

What is the importance of the adipose in the hypodermis? Give three.

insulates, cushions and protects, and stores energy

17

What is the difference between thick and thin skin, and where is each found?

thick - 5 layers - palms and soles
thin - 4 layers - everywhere except palms and soles

18

Name the 5 layers of epidermis from superficial to deep, and give a short description of each layer.

stratum corneum - thick, dead, flattened cells (keratinized)
strtum lucidum - clear layer in palms and soles
stratum granulosum - grainy layer filling with keratin
stratum spinosum - prickle layer (cells are shrinking)
stratum basale - a single germinating layer

19

the immune cells of the epidermis - 2 terms

Langerhans cells - epidermal dendritic cells

20

What happens to the immune cells of the epidermis with age, and what is the result?

decrease in number - increased skin problems

21

Name, and describe the two layers of the dermis.

1. papillary layer - consists of dermal papilla that interlock with the epidermis and create skin patterns
2. reticular layer - lots of collagen fibers

22

What is the purpose of the friction ridges created by the pattern of dermal papillae in the reticular dermis?

grasping

23

What determines the pattern of friction ridges?

genetics

24

The overall pattern of collagen fibers in the dermis creates what?

lines of cleavage or tension lines

25

Who cares about lines of cleavage or tension lines, and why?

cosmetic surgeons because cutting with the pattern reduces scars

26

What is the importance of the abundant collagen fibers in the dermis? Give 2 answers.

1. strength
2. binds to water and keeps skin hydrated

27

dermal folds near joints where the dermis is attached to deeper structures

flexure lines

28

torn collagen fibers in the skin (2 terms)

stretch marks or striae

29

What is the importance of the elastic fibers in the dermis?

help skin stretch and recoil

30

a separation of the epidermis and dermis where fluid accumulates between the layers

blister

31

Where on Earth does darker skin originate, and why?

equatorial regions - protects nuclei from sun damage

32

a yellow orange pigment in some plants

carotene

33

Where in the body does carotene tend to concentrate (2 places)?

stratum corneum
adipose

34

What vitamin is made from carotene, and what does it do for us?

vitamin A - essential for vision and epidermal health

35

Give a vegetable that contains carotene.

carrots

36

the iron-containing pigment in our blood that gives us a pink color

hemoglobin

37

when people appear blue due to a lack of oxygen in blood

cyanosis

38

when people appear red due to dilation of capillaries

erythema

39

What might make a person cyanotic?

heart and respiratory problems

40

turning white due to a lack of blood flow from fear, anger, or emotional stress (2 terms)

pallor or blanching

41

when people turn yellow due to liver issues

jaundice

42

when people turn a bronze color without excess sunlight (2 reasons)

1. Addison's disease
2. pituitary tumor

43

black and blue marks or bruises under the skin

hematomas

44

3 major skin appendages

hair, nails, glands

45

another name for a sweat gland

sudoriferous glands

46

the two main types of sweat glands

1. merocrine or eccrine
2. apocrine

47

Which type of sweat gland is more numerous?

merocrine

48

What is sweat mostly made up of?

99% water

49

What is the main function of sweat?

evaporative cooling

50

Other than cooling, what are two major functions of sweat?

kills germs and excretes wastes (dilute urine)

51

What are the 2 main locations for apocrine sweat glands?

1. axillary region
2. anogenital region

52

What causes apocrine sweat to stink?

It is more nutritious so bacteria feed on it, and the bacteria stink.

53

When do apocrine glands really start functioning?

puberty

54

What are ceruminous glands, and where are they found?

wax glands in ear

55

What is the importance of cerumen or earwax?

prevent stuff from entering ear

56

What are mammary glands?

breast milk producing glands

57

oil glands

sebaceous

58

What type of secretion is oil?

holocrine

59

What is the importance of oil to the skin?

keep it moisturized so it doesn't crack and let germs in

60

When do sebaceous glands really start functioning?

puberty

61

What are sebaceous glands usually attached to?

hair follicle

62

Other than moisturizing, what does sebum do for you?

kills germs

63

The contraction of what muscle helps to expel the sebum from the hair follicle?

arrector pili

64

at puberty, when oil glands get blocked and accumulate sebum

whiteheads

65

oxidized whiteheads

blackheads

66

inflammation of sebaceous glands accompanied by bacterial infection and pimples

acne

67

cradle cap - overactive sebaceous glands in infants

seborrhea

68

the structure that produces the hair

hair follicle

69

a hair

pilus (pili)

70

functions of hair

protect from insects, protect from heat loss, protect from sunlight, protect from abrasion and trauma, shield eyes, filter air we breathe

71

Of what chemical are hair and nails composed

keratin

72

Name the three layers of a hair shaft from outside to inside.

cuticle, cortex, medulla

73

What is the term for damaged hair cuticle?

split ends

74

the nerve endings that wrap around the bottom of a hair follicle

root hair plexus, hair follicle receptor,

75

the two layers of the hair follicle

internal root sheath (epidermis) and external root sheath (dermis)

76

the actively growing part of the hair

matrix

77

What do the arrector pili muscles do to warm a person up?

Goosebumps are tiny muscles contracting. They also trap air next to the body.

78

What is the difference between vellus and terminal hair?

vellus - peach fuzz
terminal - more coarse and dark (after puberty)

79

Why are the hairs on your scalp longer than eyebrows?

longer growth cycle between rest cycles

80

What do we call a hair that is ready to fall out?

club hair

81

How many hairs can a person lose a day without being sick?

around 100

82

What are some factors that can increase hair loss?

stress, poor nutrition, heavy metal poisoning, fever, certain drugs

83

excessive hairiness, often adrenal gland or ovarian tumors cause it

hirsutism

84

hair loss

alopecia

85

autoimmune hair loss in patches

alopecia areata

86

low pH of skin makes it be called what

acid mantle

87

What does our skin protect us from?

abrasion, dehydration, infection

88

What does our skin make in the presence of sunlight?

melanin and vitamin D

89

What is the importance of vitamin D?

allows us to absorb calcium

90

What is the importance of melanin?

shades our nuclei from sun damage

91

specialized nerve endings for pressure

Pacinian corpuscles

92

specialized nerve endings for touch

Meissner's corpuscles

93

What do free nerve endings detect?

pain and temperature

94

Name, and describe the three major types of skin cancer.

melanoma - dark tumor of melanocytes
squamous cell carcinoma - often an open sore, upper cells of skin
basal cell carcinoma - often raised and shiny, lower cells of epidermis

95

What is the rule for telling if a growth is cancer?

ABCDE Rule
A is for asymmetry
B is for border
C is for color
D is for diameter
E is for elevation

96

What are the 2 major threats to life after a serious burn?

1. sepsis - widespread bacterial infection
2. dehydration

97

How do doctors estimate the extent of burn damage?

rule of nines

98

Name and describe the 3 major categories of burns.

1st degree - epidermis only - red, swollen, and painful
2nd degree - epidermis and dermis - will blister
3rd degree - epidermis and all of dermis - no pain or swelling

99

Why don't third degree burns hurt or swell?

no blood vessels or nerve endings left

100

How must 3rd degree burns be treated?

IV fluids, antibiotics and calories
grafting to cover wound
debridement to prevent infection and fluid loss as well as lessen scars

101

downy coat of hair on a newborn

lanugo coat

102

the waxy coating of a newborn made by sebaceous glands

vernix caseosa

103

white spots that are collections of keratin in newborns

milia

104

What happens to the skin at puberty

glands increase activity - acne

105

What happens to the skin around 30?

cumulative sun damage starts to show

106

inflammation of skin

dermatitis