Chapter 4 powerpoint pt. 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 powerpoint pt. 3 Deck (33):
1

True or False: fewer than half of the world’s cultures kiss in a romantic way.

true

2

Behaviors that seem so _________ to us often do not occur in the rest of the world.

normative

3

Human ________ interacts with different cultures to explain various __________ humans engage in.”

biology
behaviors

4

Human biology interacts with different ________ to explain various behaviors humans engage in.”

cultures

5

Moreover, there is a strong correlation between the __________ of the romantic-sexual kiss and a society’s relative _______ ___________

frequency
social complexity

6

What is one of the argued most powerful and influential role imposed in society?

Gender Roles

7

is an institution in which one is totally immersed that controls all the basics of day-to-day life.

total institution

8

What are some examples of total institutions?

Armed forces
Prison
Convent/monastery
Boarding school

9

A change in values, beliefs, or norms through an intense social process

resocialization

10

What are the key components to Merton's role theory?

1. status
2. ascribed status
3. achieved status

11

What is the difference between status, ascribed status, and achieved status?

A status is a position in society that comes with a set of expectations. (E.g. student)

An ascribed status is one we are born with that is unlikely to change. (E.g., race, sex, age)

An achieved status is one we have earned through individual effort or that is imposed by others.
(E.g. college graduate, artists, convict)

12

According to Merton's status and role theory, what is an example of status, ascribed status, and achieved status?

Ex. of status= student
Ex. of ascribed status= race, sex, age
Ex. of achieved status= college graduate, artists, convict

13

According to Merton what are the different type of status' one has?

1. Ascribed status
2. Achieved status
3. Master status

14

is a status that seems to override all others and affects all other statuses that one possesses.

master status

15

What are roles?

the behaviors expected from a particular status.

16

Which type of status is this: people tend to interact with you on the basis of this status alone.

master status

17

What is the difference between role conflict and role strain?

Role conflict occurs when the roles associated with one status clash with the roles associated with a different status.

Role strain occurs when roles associated with a single status clash.

18

Role conflict and Role Strain can lead to ______ _____

role exit

19

How does social construction and symbolic interactionism work together?

People give meaning or value to ideas or objects through social interactions.
It’s an ongoing process that is embedded in our everyday interactions.

20

The _________ has created new types of social interaction

internet

21

cultural expectations on how to behave in a given situation (e.g., eye contact)

norms

22

or customs are standards of behavior that are socially approved but more significant (e.g. belching loudly at dinner table in U.S.)

folkways

23

More strict norms that control moral and ethical behaviors, based on what’s right and wrong. People feel strongly about these. (E.g. attending church in the nude, parents believe only married people should live together)

mores

24

a norm that society holds so strongly that violating it results in extreme disgust. (E.g. Muslims eating pork, pigs seen as unclean; Incest, cannibalism)

taboos

25

a law is a norm that is written down and enforced by an official law informant agency. (E.g. driving drunk, murder, theft, trespassing)

laws

26

Who created the idea of breaching experiments?

Harold Garfinkel

27

What are breaching experiments?

having collaborators exhibit “abnormal” or “atypical” behaviors in social interactions in order to see how people would react

28

What is dramaturgy?

Goffman’s dramaturgical theory views social life as a theatrical performance in which we are all actors on metaphysical stages

29

Who created dramaturgy?

Erving Goffman

30

the study of methods people use for understanding and producing the social order in which they live.

ethnomethodology

31

In ethnomethodology people are seen as rational ______, but use practical __________ to make sense of and function in society.

actors
reasoning

32

Ethnomethodology generally seeks to provide an _________ to mainstream sociological approaches

alternative

33

________________ generally seeks to provide an alternative to mainstream sociological approaches.

Ethnomethodology