Chapter 7 powerpoint pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 powerpoint pt. 1 Deck (67):
1

According to Jean Rousseau what are the two forms of equality?

1. Physical/natural inequality
2. Social inequality

2

What is the difference between physical/natural inequality and social inequality?

1. Physical/natural inequality:
-Differences in health, bodily strength, and mind.
-Will always be present
-Someone will always be better at hunting, doing math, seeing long distances, playing basketball.
2. Social inequality
-Established or at least authorized by the consent of men
-Different privileges than others, (e.g., more rich, more honored, more powerful, position to get obedience)
-Result of privileges and uneven access to resources that result in social ills.

3

True or False: Physical/natural inequality can be solved.

False; Physical/natural inequality will always be present

4

Social inequality is established or at least authorized by the consent of _____.

men

5

______ _________ is established or at least authorized by the consent of men.

Social inequality

6

Social inequality is the result of ________ and uneven access to ________ that result in social ills.

privileges
resources

7

______ _________ is the result of privileges and uneven access to resources that result in social ills.

Social inequality

8

Social inequality is the result of privileges and uneven access to resources that result in _____ ____.

social ills

9

Thomas Malthus viewed inequality _________, but _____ as a means for controlling population growth.

favorably
only

10

_______ _______ viewed inequality favorably, but only as a means for controlling population growth.

Thomas Malthus

11

Thomas Malthus viewed inequality favorably, but only as a means for controlling __________ _______.

population growth

12

How did Thomas Mathus view population growth?

Thought that a more equal distribution of resources would increase the world’s population to unsustainable levels and ultimately bring about mass starvation and conflict.

13

What was one flaw of Thomas Malthus' view of inequality?

It did not account for the development of technology

14

What are the four types of equalities?

1. Ontological equality
2. Equality of opportunity
3. Equality of condition
4. Equality of outcome

15

Explain Ontological equality .

The notion that everyone is created equal by birth (in the eyes of God).

16

Ontology =

dealing with the nature of being

17

________= dealing with the nature of being.

Ontology

18

Explain Equality of opportunity.

Idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game are the same for everyone.

19

Equality of opportunity:
This standard of equality closely associated with modern _________ society (based on notion of fairness/meritocracy).

capitalist

20

What is meritocracy?

A system where advancement is based on achievement or ability.

21

Equality of opportunity is the cornerstone of arguments made by _____ _____ ________ in the United States in the 1960s.

civil rights activists

22

Meritocracy is key to equality of opportunity.

opportunity

23

_________ is key to equality of opportunity.

Meritocracy

24

What are the three components of equality of condition?

1. idea that everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue his or her goals
2. the starting point has been unequal
3. starting point needs to be adjusted to offset disadvantage

25

Affirmative action is an example of equality of _________.

condition

26

Explain the equality of outcome.

Everyone in a society should end up with the same “rewards” regardless of starting point, opportunities, or contributions.

27

The distribution of resources coincides with _______ & ___________.

Marxism
Communism

28

What is Scottish enlightenment?

Incentives to work harder disappear

29

According to equality of outcome incentive is _________; giving to society for the sake of its progress and not merely own betterment

altruistic

30

How does the U.S. justify system of social stratification?

Maintained through beliefs that are widely shared by members of society (ideology, hegemony)

31

What is social stratification?

Social stratification refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.

32

What are the 5 forms/systems of stratification?

1. Estate system
2. Caste system
3. Class system
4. Status Hierarchy System
5. Elite-Mass System

33

The ________ system is a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility.

estate

34

The estate system is a __________ based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility.

politically

35

What is the basis of stratification when it comes to the estate system of stratification?

political (land gave you political voice)

36

What is the strata of the estate system of stratification?

-Clergy
-Nobility
-Commoners (City dwellers/peasants)

37

Feudal Europe and pre-Civil War American South are examples of what type of stratification?

estate system

38

How is social mobility and social reproduction during the estate system of gratification?

Social Mobility: Very limited
Social reproduction: Very high

39

The ______ system is a system of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and generally offers no prospects for social mobility.

caste

40

The caste system is a system of stratification based on _________ notions of ________ and ___________ purity and generally offers no prospects for social mobility.

hereditary
religious
theological

41

What is the basis of stratification of the caste system of stratification?

religious/hereditary

42

What is the strata (or caste) of the caste system of stratification?

-Brahmin/Priests
-Kshatriyan/Warrior
-Vaishya/Traders
-Shundra/Workes

43

What is the social mobility and social reproduction in the caste system of stratification?

Social mobility: Very little; little to no mobility between ranks
Social reproduction: Very high

44

What is endogamy and exogamy and how can it be used as social mobility in the caste system?

Endogamy is marrying within your caste system, and exogamy is marrying outside of one's caste system.
Exogamy can be used to change rank.

45

What is Sanskritization?

whole caste leap frogs over another

46

How was Sanskritization used by Indians?

Traders became Christian to try to leap frog to another caste during British occupation of India.
Outcome: not successful. Separation of Pakistan from India, allowed to handle and sell alcohol
Improved economic condition

47

The caste system has been present for over _______ years and now has thousands of ______.

5,000
subsets

48

The ______ system is a system ___________ based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility.

class
economically

49

What is the strata of the class system?

Different theoretical perspective (income, wealth, power, prestige, lifestyle, consumption patterns, attitudes, education).

50

What were two of the original classes?

bourgeoisie
proletariat

51

What is the basis of stratification in the class system of stratification?

economics

52

What does social mobility and social reproduction look like in the class system?

Social mobility: possible but not probable
Social reproduction: high

53

____ ____ felt that society was divided strictly into two classes:
1. proletariat--working class
2. bourgeoisie--employing class

Karl Marx

54

Karl Marx felt that society was divided strictly into two classes:
1. __________--working class
2. bourgeoisie-- ________ class

proletariat
employing

55

Karl Marx felt that society was divided strictly into two classes:
1. proletariat--_________ class
2. _________--employing class

working
bourgeoisie

56

What is contradictory class location and who invented them?

The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two “pure” classes defined by Marx.
Created by Erik Olin Wright

57

What is a petit bourgeoisie?

self-employed, small business owner

58

What is Max Weber's concept of class?

Grouping people according to the value of their property or labor in the commercial marketplace.

59

______ _________ system of stratification is based on social prestige.

Status hierarchy

60

Status hierarchy of stratification is based on ______ ______.

social prestige

61

What is the basis of stratification in the status hierarchy system?

prestige

62

What is the social mobility and social reproduction of the status hierarchy system?

Social mobility: likely to very high
Social reproduction: somewhat likely

63

The _____ _____ system is a system of stratification that has a governing elite — a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society.

elite-mass

64

What is the basis of stratification in the elite-mass system of stratification?

skill and talent

65

What is the social mobility and social reproduction of the elite-mass system of stratification?

Social mobility: very high (in theory)
Social reproduction: somewhat likely

66

Vilfredo Pareto and C. Wright Mills; who approved and disapproved of the elite-mass system of stratification?

Vilfredo Pareto thought that the masses were better off in such a system.
C. Wright Mills viewed this system as dangerous and detrimental.

67

What is the Parento Principle?

80/20 rule (intellectual, physical, moral), most capable rule the rest.