Flashcards in Chapter 4 Skeletal Deck (35)
What is one that has characteristics of vertebrae on both sides of a major division of the spine?
What refers to a posterior defect of the spinal canal, resulting from failure of the posterior elements to fuse properly?
What is is a rare hereditary bone dysplasia in which failure of the resorptive mechanism of calcified cartilage interferes with the normal replacement by mature bone?
osteopetrosis (marble bones)
What is an inherited generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by multiple fractures and an unusual blue color of the normally white sclera of the eye?
Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones)
What is the most common form of dwarfism; it results from diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plate (decreased enchondral bone formation)?
What also known as developmental hip dysplasia, results from incomplete acetabulum formation caused by physiologic and mechanical factors?
Congenital hip dysplasia
What is a chronic systemic disease of unknown cause that appears primarily as a nonsuppurative (noninfectious) inflammatory arthritis of the small joints of the hands and feet?
What refers to a rheumatoid arthritis–like destructive process involving peripheral joints that develops in patients with typical skin changes of psoriasis ?
Pyogenic (pus-forming) organisms may gain entry into a joint by the hematogenous route, by direct extension from an 99adjacent focus of osteomyelitis, or from trauma to the joint?
What refers to an inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs located near the joints that reduce the friction caused by movement?
What is an inflammation of the bone (osteitis) and bone marrow (myelitis) caused by a broad spectrum of infectious (most often gram-positive) organisms that reach bone by hematogenous spread, by extension from an adjacent site of infection, or by direct introduction of organisms (after trauma or surgery)?
What most commonly involves the thoracic and lumbar spine?
What is a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix in which the mass of bone per unit volume is decreased in amount but normal in composition?
What refers to insufficient mineralization of the adult skeleton?
What is a systemic disease of infancy and childhood that is the equivalent of osteomalacia in the mature skeleton?
What is a disorder in the metabolism of purine (a component of nucleic acids) in which an increase in the blood level of uric acid leads to the deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints, cartilage, and kidney?
Destruction of bone, followed by a reparative process, results in weakened, deformed, and thickened bony structures that tend to fracture easily is?
What is a disorder that usually begins during childhood, is characterized by the proliferation of fibrous tissue within the medullary cavity?
What is caused by loss of the blood supply, which in turn can result from such varied conditions as thrombosis, vasculitis, disease of surrounding bone, and single or repeated episodes of trauma?
What is a benign projection of bone with a cartilaginous cap that arises in childhood or the teen years, especially about the knee?
What is a slow-growing benign cartilaginous tumor arising in the medullary canal (ectopic cartilaginous growth)?
What typically arises at the end of the distal femur or proximal tibia of a young adult after epiphyseal closure (20 to 40 years old)?
giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma)
What most often arise in the outer table of the skull, the paranasal sinuses (especially frontal and ethmoid), and the mandible?
What usually develops in teenagers or young adults and produces the classic clinical symptom of local pain that is worse at night and is dramatically relieved by aspirin?
What is a true fluid-filled cyst with a wall of fibrous tissue that most often occurs in the proximal humerus or femur at the metaphysis?
simple bone cyst (unicameral)
rather than being a true neoplasm or cyst, consists of numerous blood-filled arteriovenous communications thought to be caused by trauma is?
aneurysmal bone cyst
What generally occurs in the end of a long bone in the metaphysis (especially about the knee)?
What is a?malignant tumor of cartilaginous origin that may originate anew or within a preexisting cartilaginous lesion?
What is a primary malignant tumor arising in the bone marrow of long bones.
What is disseminated (widespread) malignancy of plasma cells that may be associated with bone destruction, bone marrow failure, hypercalcemia, renal failure, and recurrent infections?
What are the most common malignant bone tumors, spreading by means of the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels or by direct extension?
What are the most common skeletal abnormality seen in a general radiology practice?
What are those occurring in bone that has been weakened by a preexisting condition?
what is the twisting and curvature in the lateral perspective, somewhat like an S curve?