Chapter 4 Skeletal Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Chapter 4 Skeletal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Skeletal Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is one that has characteristics of vertebrae on both sides of a major division of the spine?

transitional vertebra

2

What refers to a posterior defect of the spinal canal, resulting from failure of the posterior elements to fuse properly?

spina bifida

3

What is is a rare hereditary bone dysplasia in which failure of the resorptive mechanism of calcified cartilage interferes with the normal replacement by mature bone?

osteopetrosis (marble bones)

4

What is an inherited generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by multiple fractures and an unusual blue color of the normally white sclera of the eye?

Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones)

5

What is the most common form of dwarfism; it results from diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plate (decreased enchondral bone formation)?

Achondroplasia

6

What also known as developmental hip dysplasia, results from incomplete acetabulum formation caused by physiologic and mechanical factors?

Congenital hip dysplasia

7

What is a chronic systemic disease of unknown cause that appears primarily as a nonsuppurative (noninfectious) inflammatory arthritis of the small joints of the hands and feet?

rheumatoid arthritis

8

What refers to a rheumatoid arthritis–like destructive process involving peripheral joints that develops in patients with typical skin changes of psoriasis ?

psoriatic arthritis

9

Pyogenic (pus-forming) organisms may gain entry into a joint by the hematogenous route, by direct extension from an 99adjacent focus of osteomyelitis, or from trauma to the joint?

infectious arthritis

10

What refers to an inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs located near the joints that reduce the friction caused by movement?

Bursitis

11

What is an inflammation of the bone (osteitis) and bone marrow (myelitis) caused by a broad spectrum of infectious (most often gram-positive) organisms that reach bone by hematogenous spread, by extension from an adjacent site of infection, or by direct introduction of organisms (after trauma or surgery)?

bacterial osteomyelitis

12

What most commonly involves the thoracic and lumbar spine?

Tuberculous osteomyelitis

13

What is a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix in which the mass of bone per unit volume is decreased in amount but normal in composition?

osteoporosis

14

What refers to insufficient mineralization of the adult skeleton?

osteomalacia

15

What is a systemic disease of infancy and childhood that is the equivalent of osteomalacia in the mature skeleton?

Rickets

16

What is a disorder in the metabolism of purine (a component of nucleic acids) in which an increase in the blood level of uric acid leads to the deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints, cartilage, and kidney?

Gout

17

Destruction of bone, followed by a reparative process, results in weakened, deformed, and thickened bony structures that tend to fracture easily is?

pagets disease

18

What is a disorder that usually begins during childhood, is characterized by the proliferation of fibrous tissue within the medullary cavity?

Fibrous dysplasia

19

What is caused by loss of the blood supply, which in turn can result from such varied conditions as thrombosis, vasculitis, disease of surrounding bone, and single or repeated episodes of trauma?

ischemic necrosis

20

What is a benign projection of bone with a cartilaginous cap that arises in childhood or the teen years, especially about the knee?

osteochondroma (exostosis)

21

What is a slow-growing benign cartilaginous tumor arising in the medullary canal (ectopic cartilaginous growth)?

enchondroma

22

What typically arises at the end of the distal femur or proximal tibia of a young adult after epiphyseal closure (20 to 40 years old)?

giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma)

23

What most often arise in the outer table of the skull, the paranasal sinuses (especially frontal and ethmoid), and the mandible?

osteomas

24

What usually develops in teenagers or young adults and produces the classic clinical symptom of local pain that is worse at night and is dramatically relieved by aspirin?

osteoid osteomas

25

What is a true fluid-filled cyst with a wall of fibrous tissue that most often occurs in the proximal humerus or femur at the metaphysis?

simple bone cyst (unicameral)

26

rather than being a true neoplasm or cyst, consists of numerous blood-filled arteriovenous communications thought to be caused by trauma is?

aneurysmal bone cyst

27

What generally occurs in the end of a long bone in the metaphysis (especially about the knee)?

Osteogenic sarcoma

28

What is a?malignant tumor of cartilaginous origin that may originate anew or within a preexisting cartilaginous lesion?

chondrosarcoma

29

What is a primary malignant tumor arising in the bone marrow of long bones.

ewings sarcoma

30

What is disseminated (widespread) malignancy of plasma cells that may be associated with bone destruction, bone marrow failure, hypercalcemia, renal failure, and recurrent infections?

Multiple myeloma

31

What are the most common malignant bone tumors, spreading by means of the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels or by direct extension?

mestastases

32

What are the most common skeletal abnormality seen in a general radiology practice?

fractures

33

What are those occurring in bone that has been weakened by a preexisting condition?

pathologic fractures

34

what is the twisting and curvature in the lateral perspective, somewhat like an S curve?

scoliosis

35

What refers to a cleft in the pars interarticularis that is situated between the superior and inferior articular processes of a vertebra?

spondylolysis