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Flashcards in Chapter 5 G.I Deck (31)
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1

What results from the failure of a satisfactory esophageal lumen to develop completely separate from the trachea.

congenital tracheoesophageal fistulas

2

What describes any symptomatic condition or structural changes caused by reflux of the stomach contents into the esophagus?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

3

What condition related to severe reflux esophagitis in which the normal squamous lining of the lower esophagus is destroyed and replaced by columnar epithelium similar to that of the stomach?

Barretts esophagus

4

What (outpouchings) are common lesions that either contain all layers of the wall (traction or true diverticula) or are composed of only mucosa and submucosa herniating through the muscular layer (pulsion or false diverticula)?

esophageal diverticula

5

what arise from the posterior wall of the upper (cervical) esophagus?

zenkers diverticula

6

What are dilated veins in the wall of the esophagus that are most commonly the result of increased pressure in the portal venous system (portal hypertension), which is in turn usually a result of cirrhosis of the liver?

esophageal varices

7

What is the most common abnormality (occurring in 50% of the population) detected on upper GI examination?

hiatal hernia

8

What is a functional obstruction of the distal section of the esophagus with proximal dilation caused by incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter?

achalasia

9

Thickened gastric folds, gastric outlet obstruction?

gastritis

10

occurs when the two muscular layers of the pylorus become hyperplastic and hypertrophic

pyloric stenosis

11

caused by the action of acid and the enzyme pepsin secreted by the stomach and occurs most frequently on the lesser curvature

peptic ulcer disease

12

chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that most often involves the terminal area of the ileum but can affect any part of the GI tract.

crohns disease

13

ommon disorder of intestinal motor activity in which fluid and gas do not progress normally through a nonobstructed small and large bowel.

adynamic ileus

14

telescoping of one part of the intestinal tract into another because of peristalsis, which forces the proximal segment of bowel to move distally within the ensheathing outer portion.

intussusception

15

develops when the neck of the appendix becomes blocked by a fecalith or by postinflammatory scarring that creates a closed-loop obstruction within the organ.

Appendicitis

16

outpouchings that represent acquired herniations of mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layers at points of weakness in the bowel wall.

diverticulosis

17

is a complication of diverticular disease of the colon (necrosing inflammation in the diverticula), especially in the sigmoid region, in which perforation of a diverticulum leads to the development of a peridiverticular abscess.

diverticulitis

18

primarily affects young adults, cause is unknown with alternating periods of remission and relapse

ulcerative colitis

19

patchy distribution, with involvement of multiple noncontiguous segments of colon (skip lesions)

crohns colitis

20

characterized by the abrupt onset of lower abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.

ischemic colitis

21

twisting of the bowel on itself that may lead to intestinal obstruction

volvulus

22

are varicose veins of the lower end of the rectum that cause pain, itching, and bleeding

hemorrhoids

23

can develop whenever bile contains insufficient bile salts and lecithin in proportion to cholesterol to maintain the cholesterol in solution

gallstones

24

inflammation of the gallbladder

cholecystitis

25

rare condition in which the growth of gas-forming organisms in the gallbladder is facilitated by stasis and ischemia caused by cystic duct obstruction

emphysematous cholecystitis

26

calcification in the wall of the gallbladder, which forms an oval density that corresponds to the size and shape of the organ

porcelain gallbladder

27

chronic destruction of liver cells and structure, with nodular regeneration of liver parenchyma and fibrosis

cirrhosis

28

inflammatory process in which protein- and lipid-digesting enzymes become activated within the pancreas and begin to digest the organ

pancreatitis

29

loculated (walled-off) fluid collections arising from inflammation, necrosis, or hemorrhage associated with acute pancreatitis or trauma

pancreatic pseudocyst

30

Free air in the peritoneal cavity associated with significant abdominal pain and tenderness is often caused by perforation of a gas-containing viscus and indicates a surgical emergency

pneumoperitoneum