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92. Police agencies use several types of plans that we can think of as falling into the major categories of...



92. Such plans are intended to handle a police agency’s day-to-day responsibilities and are usually developed by and for specific functions within the agency.

Nonstrategic plans


92. Nonstrategic plan types:

single-use, repeat-use, tactical, operational, and contingency.


92. A plan for a one-time event or special time event or special circumstance.

Single-use plan


92. A plan that may be replicated for similar events or tactical situations.

Repeat-use plan


92. A plan for special events, unique or extraordinary circumstances, or intra-agency or interagency operational needs.

Tactical plan


92. A plan delineating functional activities and agency change processes. This plan drives an entire agency or units within an agency.

Operational plan


92. A plan activated during serious emergencies, critical events, or disasters that affect the agency and demand immediate and/or prolonged response.

Contingency plan


93. Long-term courses of action intended to apply to the entire police organization.

Strategic plans


93. What types of plans are the result of a more complex and lengthier process?

Strategic Plans


94. Two especially important planning approaches.

CPTED and CompStat


94. What does CPTED stand for?

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design


94. Define CPTED.

The process of deciding how to construct or modify the physical environment to deter or discourage criminal activity.


95. What has proved to be a potent weapon in CPTED?



95-96. Name the Four Strategies that lie at the core of CPTED Plans.

- Natural Surveillance
- Territorial Reinforcement
- Natural access control
- Target hardening


95. What does 'Natural surveillance' refer to?

the use of physical features that increase people's visibility in the area


95. What CPTED Planning strategy emphasizes the use of physical characteristics to differentiate private and public areas, emphasizing the ownership of private places while discouraging encroachment?

Territorial reinforcement


95-96. Name the CPTED Planning Strategy that focuses on ensuring that streets and sidewalks are in full view of the community.

Natural access control


96. What CPTED Planning Strategy involves the use of hardware, lighting and other elements designed to make a home or business less vulnerable to physical intrusion?

Target hardening


96. What is one important benefit of CPTED as a type of planning?

it promotes community cohesion


96. Name a limitation in executing CPTED.

it can be expensive


96. What policing approach involves the generation of as much real-time data as possible about crimes AND the frequent evaluation of the data to develop strategies to reduce crime as quickly and effectively as possible?



96. What is a key element of the CompStat approach?

frequent evaluation of the intelligence collected.


96. Why is frequent evaluation of the intelligence collected a key element of CompStat?

so police can develop plans for moving quickly and effectively to reduce crime.


96. How can Police Agencies deploy personnel and resources rapidly to areas where crimes are occurring?

by gathering real-time information.


96. In addition to the frequent evaluation of the intelligence collected, name additional vital elements of CompStat.

Relentless follow-up and assessment.


97. Some studies revealed statistically significant reductions in major crimes which in some cases may have resulted from under reporting due to _________.

Pressure from superiors to downgrade major crimes to minor offenses.


98. Regardless of the number of steps a particular planning process model contains, they can be organized into three steps essential to all planning. Name them.

- assessing needs and risks
- developing alternative courses of action
- selecting a course of action


98. The process an organization uses to determine whether a need (or problem) exists that could be addressed by a particular course of action is called what?

Needs assessment


99. Agency leaders might use a needs assessment to determine whether managers and officers must strengthen particular .