Chapter 44: Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Species Interactions Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapter 44: Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Species Interactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 44: Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Species Interactions Deck (17):
1

Interspecific Interactions

interactions between individuals of different species
can affect fitness of individual

2

Interspecific Competition

Both species negatively affected

3

limiting resource

in shortest supply relative to demand
doesn't have to be food-- can be water, space, or sunlight

4

Consumer-resource interactions

organisms gain nutrition by eating other living organisms or are eaten themselves
+/- interactions
includes predation, herbivory, and parasitism

5

predation

an individual of one species (predator) kills and eats individuals of another species(prey)
+/-

6

Herbivory

animal consumes al or part of a plant
+/-

7

Parasitism

a parasitic organism consumes part of a host individual but usually does not kill it
+/-
parasites generally smaller
some considered pathogens

8

mutualism

interaction that benefits both species
;leaf cutter ants and fungi
humans and bifidobacteria in guts

9

Commensalism

One participant benefits, the other unaffected
+/0
hiteching a ride
feeding behavior makes food more accessible for another one
brown-headed cowbird follows cows and eats the insect that are flushed from vegetation bu their hooves and teeth cows are not affected
cows and dung beetles
cows are just leading this commensalism thing

10

Amensalism

one participant is hurt and another is unaffected
-/0
elephant crushing plants and insects
more accidental

11

Intraspecific interactions

interactions among the individuals in a population

12

Intraspecific competition

competition within a species
described by density dependent growth

13

Gause conclusions

presence of a predator reduces population growth rate
when two species coexist, lower equilibirum population densities
competition can cause one species to go extinct

14

Joseph Connell

Barnacles and the intertidal zone guyyy

15

rarity advantage

for species to coexist, infraspecific competition must be stronger than interspecfic
species gains growth advantage when it as at a low density and competitor is at high density

16

Resource partitioning

differences in competing species in resource use
causes intra to be stronger than inter

17

invasive species

introduced
reproduce rapidly + spread widely