chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

medical term > chapter 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 5 Deck (55):
1

anemia

a lower than normal number of erythrocytes in the blood

2

aneurysm

a localized weak spot, or balloon-like enlargement, of the wall of an artery

3

Angina

a condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium

4

angioplasty

a procedure in which a small balloon is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen

5

anticoagulant

slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming

6

aplastic anemia

characterized by an absence of all formed blood elements caused by the failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow

7

arrhythmia

describes an abnormality, or the loss of the normal rhythm, of the heart

8

atherectomy

the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

9

atheroma

a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

10

atherosclerosis

hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries

11

atrial fibrillation

occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

12

automated external defibrillator

designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defibrillation is required

13

beta-blocker

reduces the workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat

14

blood dyscrasia

any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

15

bradycardia

an abnormally slow resting heart rate

16

cardiac arrest

an event in which the heart abruptly stops or develops a very abnormal arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood

17

cardiac endarterectomy

the surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain

18

cardiomyopathy

the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle

19

cholesterol

a fatty substance that travels through the blood and is found in all parts of the body

20

chronic venous insufficiency

a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves

21

coronary thrombosis

damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery

22

defibrillation

the use of electrical shock to restore the heart's normal rhythm

23

diuretic

administered to stimulate the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water

24

electrocardiogram

a record of the electrical activity of the myocardium

25

embolism

the sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus

26

embolus

a foreign object, such as a blood clot, quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in the blood

27

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

28

erythrocytes

mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow (red blood cells - RBC)

29

hemoglobin

the iron-containing pigment of the erythrocytes

30

hemolytic anemia

a condition o fan inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen

31

hemostasis

to stop or control bleeding

32

ischemic heart disease

group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

33

leukemia

a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes found in blood forming tissues, other organs, and in the circulating blood

34

leukocyte

the blood cells involved in defending the body against infective organisms and foreign substances (white blood cells - WBC)

35

leukopenia

describes any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal

36

megaloblastic anemia

blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than norm

37

myelodysplatic syndrome

a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow

38

myocardial infarction

the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup (heart attack)

39

orthostatic hypotension

blood pressure that occurs upon standing u

40

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

an episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium

41

pericardium

the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart

42

pernicious anemia

caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor that helps the body absorb vitamin B-12 from the gastrointestinal tract

43

phlebitis

the inflammation of a vein

44

Raynaud's phenomenon

a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress

45

septicemia

a systemic condition caused by the spread of microorganisms and their toxins via the circulating blood

46

sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape

47

tachycardia

an abnormally rapid resting heart rate

48

thallium stress test

performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise

49

thrombocytopenia

condition in which there is an abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood

50

thrombosis

the abnormal condition of having a thrombus

51

transfusion reaction

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match

52

valvulitis

an inflammation of a heart valve

53

varicose veins

abnormally swollen veins, usually occurring in the superficial veins of the legs

54

ventricular fibrillation

the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles

55

ACE inhibitor

blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension