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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (92):
1

What is the largest organ of the body?

The skin

2

2 layers of the skin

dermis and epidermis

3

Where is the hypodermic found?

Deep to the dermis

4

What is the hypodermic made of?

Areolar and adipose tissues

5

What is the epidermis made of?

Stratified squamous and keratin

6

What is the dermis made of?

Connective tissue

7

What are the two parts of the dermis?

Papillary and reticular dermis

8

Name 5 appendages of the skin

Eccrine sweat gland, arrestor pills muscle, sebaceous gland, hair follicle, hair root

9

What is reticular dermis made of?

Dense irregular connective tissue

10

Name 3 nervous structures of the skin

Sensory nerve fiber, lamellar corpuscle, hair root follicle receptor

11

What does the lamellar corpuscle detect?

Deep pressure and vibration

12

What do nervous structure detect?

Warm/Cold, touch, pain, vibration

13

5 functions of the skin

Protection, body temperature regulation, excretion, production of vitamin D, sensory reception

14

4 cell types of the epidermis

Kertainocytes, melanocytes, tactile epithelial cells, dendritic cells

15

Location of keratinocytes

All strata

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Function of keratinocytes

Produce keratin, antibiotics and enzymes that detoxify chemicals, release glycolipids

17

Location of melanocytes

Basal Layer

18

Function of melanocytes

Manufacture and secrete pigment melanin, protects nucleus from UV light damage

19

Location of tactile epithelial cells

Basal layer

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Function of tactile epithelial cells

Attached to sensory nerve endings (Tactile discs)

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Location of dendritic cells

Stratum Spinosum

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Function of dendritic cells

Macrophage like, part of immune system

23

Layers of the epidermis

Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

24

Another name for tactile epithelial cell discs

Merkel's Cells

25

What layer of epidermis only appears in thick skin?

Stratum lucidum

26

What cells are found in the stratum basale?

Tactile epithelial cells, melanocytes

27

What is the thickest layer of the epidermis?

Stratum spinosum

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What can be found in the stratum spinosum?

Intermediate filaments, keratinocytes and dendritic cells

29

What is found in the stratum granulosum?

Layers of keratinocytes

30

2 layers of keratinocyte

Keratohyaline granules and lamellar granules

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Function of keratohyaline granules

Help form keratin

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Function of lamellar granules

Contain waterproofing glycolipid that is secreted from cell and helps waterproof the skin

33

Location of thick skin

Palms and soles

34

Function of stratum cornerum

Protects skin against abrasion and penetration

35

What is the papillary region made of?

Areolar connective tissue

36

What is the reticular region made of?

Dense irregular connective tissue

37

Function of dermal papillae

Increase surface area for exchange of gases, nutrients, waste, interdigitation strengthens attachment of epidermis to dermis

38

What are epidermal reidges

Elevations of dermal ridges that increase gripping abilities and form fingerprints

39

Location of cleavage lines

Reticular region of dermis

40

Function of cleavage lines

Separation between collagen fibers which give skin strength

41

Location of flexure lines

Reticular region of dermis

42

Function of flexure lines

Deep creases in palms, wrists, soles, fingers, toes

43

Vascular plexuses in Reticular dermis

Dermal plexus and sub papillary plexus

44

Other names for hypodermis

Superficial fascia or subcutaneous layer

45

What is the hypodermis made of?

areolar and adipose connective tissue

46

Function of hypodermis

Anchors skin to underlying structures, helps insulate body

47

Why is there more hypodermis in females?

To protect the fetus

48

3 pigments that contribute to skin color

Melanin, carotene, hemoglobin

49

Function of melanin

Produce range of color from yellow to reddish to brown to black

50

Functions of carotene

Yellowish pigment from carrots and tomatoes

51

Location of carotene

Accumulates in stratum corneum and fat

52

Function of hemoglobin

Allows crimson color of blood to show through

53

5 parts of the nail

Free edge, body, root, nail folds, eponychium

54

What are nails made of?

Hard keratin

55

What is the eponychium?

Cuticle

56

Main parts of hair

Root and shaft

57

3 layers of hair cells

Medulla, cortex, cuticle

58

What happens when hair turns grey?

Melanocytes stop functioning

59

What makes up the wall of a hair follicle?

Connective tissue and epithelial tissue root sheath

60

What are arrestor pili muscles made of?

Smooth muscle

61

Function of arrestor pili

Hair stands erect when contracts, also causes dimpling of skin/goosebumps

62

Two types of hair

Vellus and terminal

63

Vellus hair

on women and children

64

Terminal hair

Hair of scalp, eyebrows, axillary and pubic area

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Function of hair

Protect from sunlight, provide warmth

66

What do sebaceous glands secrete?

Sebum

67

Holocrine secretion

Entire cell breaks up to form secretion

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What type of gland is a sebaceous gland?

Simple alveolar

69

Function of sebum

Collect dirt, soften and lubricates hair and skin

70

2 types of sweat glands

Eccrine and apocrine

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Most numerous sweat gland

eccrine

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Location of apocrine glands

Axillary, anal, genital areas

73

2 modified apocrine glands

Ceruminous and mammary

74

What kind of sweat do apocrine glands produce?

Pheromones, signal info about immune system

75

First degree burn

In epidermis; sunburn

76

Second degree

Upper part of dermis; blisters, little scaring

77

Third degree burn

Consumes thickness of skin; white/red/black

78

What threats to the body do burns pose?

Dehydration and infection

79

What is used to determine the extent of a burn

Rule of nines

80

Autograft

Cells replace, works well for small areas

81

Homograft

Comes from same species, donated skin

82

Heterograft

Usually pig skin; usually rejected and replaced

83

4 types of skin grafts

Autograt, homograft, heterograft, artificial

84

3 types of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma

85

Where does squamous cell carcinoma come from?

Keratinocytes of stratum spinosum

86

ABCDE rule

Asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter, elevation

87

What does the epidermis develop from?

Embryonic ectoderm

88

What does the dermis and hypodermic develop from?

Mesoderm

89

What do melanocytes develop from?

Neural crest cells

90

When does fetal skin form?

After the fourth month

91

What are the downy hairs of a fetus called?

Lanugo

92

What do fetal sebaceous glands produce?

Vernix caseosa, protects them from amnionic fluid