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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (73):
1

Function of Perichondrium

Surrounds cartilage, resists outward pressure, helps repair and growth of cartilage

2

Where are chondrocytes located?

Lacunae

3

Describe hyaline cartilage

Most abundant cartilage, very thin, ground substance holds a large amount of water, provides support through flexibility and resistance

4

Describe elastic cartilage

Contains many elastic fibers, able to tolerate repeated bending

5

Location of elastic cartilage

epiglottis and cartilage of external ear

6

Describe Fibrocartilage

Resists strong compression and strong tension, intermediate between hyaline and elastic cartilage, thick collagen fibers

7

Location of fibrocartilage

Pubic symphysis, menisci of knee, annulus fibrosis

8

Describe appositional growth

Grows from the outside, chondroblasts in surrounding perichondrium produce new cartilage

9

How does bone grow?

Through appositional growth

10

Describe interstitial growth

Chrondrocytes within cartilage divide and secret new matrix, pushes cells further apart

11

Why does cartilage repair slowly?

Little blood flow

12

Describe the function of bones

Support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood cell formation, energy metabolism

13

3 cell types in bone

Osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes

14

Describe osteogenic cells

Stem cells that differentiate into osteoblast; produce matrix

15

Describe osteoblasts

Produce and secrete bone matrix (Osteoid)

16

Describe osteocytes

Keep bone matrix health after osteoids calcify

17

Describe osteoclasts

Found in bone tissue and are responsible for the respiration of bone, derived from white blood cells and secrete hydrochloric acid and lysosomal enzymes

18

3 parts of long bone

Proximal/distal epiphysis and diaphysis

19

Describe a sesamoid bone

Form within a tendon, short bone

20

Examples of irregular bones

Vertebrae and facial bones

21

Describe the structure of a long bone

Diaphysis and epiphysis, blood vessels, medullary cavity (yellow marrow), membranes

22

3 membranes of a long bone

Periosteum, endosperm, perforating collagen bundles (Sharpy's fibers)

23

Defining structure of short, irregular and flat bones

Contain bone marrow but no cavity

24

Describe trabeculae

Compression/tension lines of long bones (Made of spongy bone)

25

3 categories of bone markings

Projections for muscle attachment, surfaces that form joints, depressions/openings

26

Tuberosity

Large, rounded projection

27

Crest

Narrow ridge of bone

28

Trochanter

Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (Only on femur)

29

Line

Narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than crest

30

Epicondyle

Raised area on or above a condyle

31

Process

Any bony prominence

32

Head

Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

33

Facet

Smooth, nearly flat articular surface

34

Condyle

Rounded articular projection, often articulates with fossa

35

Foramen

Round or oval opening through bone

36

Groove

Furrow

37

Fissure

Narrow, slitlike

38

Notch

Indentation at the edge of a structure

39

Fossa

Shallow basin-like depression of bone often serving as an articular surface

40

Meatus

Canal like passageway

41

Sinus

Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

42

Describe osteon

Long cylindrical structures that function in support

43

What do osteons contain?

Lamellae, central canal, perforating canals, canaliculi

44

Define ossification

Bone tissue formation

45

What are membrane bones formed from?

Directly from mesenchyme

46

Formed by mesenchyme

Intramembranous ossification

47

Formed from hyaline cartilage

Endochondrial ossification

48

Steps of intramembranous ossification

Ossification centers appear in fibrous connective tissue membrane, Osteoid is secreted within fibrous membrane and calcifies, Woven bone and periosteum form, Lamellar bone replaces woven bone. red marrow appears

49

Steps of Endochondral ossification

1. Bone collar forms around diaphysis
2. Cartilage in center of diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities
3. Periosteal bud invades internal cavities and spongy bone forms
4. Diaphysis elongates and medullary cavity forms. Secondary ossification centers appear in epiphysis
5. Epiphyses ossify, hyaline cartilage remains only in epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages

50

Epiphyseal plate growth of long bone steps

Resting Area
1. Proliferation zone: Mitosis
2. Hypertrophic Zone: Older cells enlarge
3. Calcification Zone: Matrix calcifies, cartilage cells die, matrix deteriorates
4. Ossification Zone: New bone forms

51

When do long bones stop growing?

Diaphysis and epiphysis fuse

52

3 hormones that regulate bone growth

Growth, thyroid, sex hormones

53

Function of growth hormone

Stimulates epiphyseal plates to divide more often

54

Function of thyroid hormone

Ensures that skeleton retains proper proportions

55

Function of sex hormones

Promote bone growth, induces closure of epiphyseal plates

56

When is cancellous bone replaced?

3-4 years

57

When is compact bone replaced?

10 years

58

Where does bone deposit and removal happen?

Periosteal and endosteal surfaces

59

Describe bone deposition

Accomplished by osteoblasts

60

Describe bone reabsorption

Accomplished by osteoclasts

61

Describe open reduction

Need surgery

62

Describe closed reduction

Can manipulate and line without surgery

63

Stages of healing a bone fracture

1. Hematoma
2. Fibrocartilagenous callus forms
3. Bony callus forms
4. Bone remodeling occurs (Small bump is left)

64

Comminuted fracture

Bone fragments into 3 or more pieces

65

Compression fracture

Bone is crushed, common in osteoporotic bones

66

Spiral fracture

Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone

67

Epiphyseal fracture

Epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate; where cartilage cells are dying

68

Depressed fracture

Broken bone portion is pressed inward (Skull)

69

Greenstick fracture

Bone breaks incompletely, only one side of the shaft breaks; common in chldren

70

Describe osteoporosis

Low bone mass, bone reabsorption outpaces deposition, occurs mostly in women after menopause

71

Describe osteomalacia

Bones are inadequately mineralized, do not ossify

72

Describe rickets

Analogous to osteomalacia, vit. D or calcium phosphate deficiency

73

Osteosarcoma

Bone cancer, usually in long bone, detected due to pain and swelling of diaphysis (Usually at knee)