Chapter 5 Anatomy And Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Anatomy And Physiology Deck (56)
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1
Q

morphology

A

is the science or study of the structure of an organism or body

2
Q

atoms

A

consist of subatomic particles that all substances are composed of.

carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
nitrogen

3
Q

cells

A

are basic functional units of all living matter

epithelial cell
nerve cell
muscle cell

4
Q

tissues

A

are collections of similar cells that carry out specific bodily functions

epithelial tissues
nerve tissues
muscle tissues
connective tissues

5
Q

organs

A

a combination of tissues and cells that form a complex structure to perform a certain function within the system

lung
brain
stomach
kidney

6
Q

organ system

A

is several organs working together to perform a bodily function

respiratory system
nervous system
digestive system
circulatory system

7
Q

protoplasm

A

is a colorless, jelly like substance in which food elements, such as protein, fats, carbs, mineral salts, and water are present

8
Q

molecules

A

atoms arranged in specific patterns and structures

sugars
proteins
water

9
Q

organelles

A

mitochondrian
nucleus
ribosome

10
Q

cytoplasm

A

is all of the substance within the cell wall other than the nucleus

11
Q

nucleus

A

the main central body of living cells that contains the genetic information for continuing life

12
Q

living cells differ from each other by… (4)

A

size, shape, structure, function

13
Q

cell membrane

A

permits soluble substances to enter and leave the protoplasm

14
Q

cytoplasmic organelles

A

discrete structures within a cell, having specialized functions, identifying molecule structures, and a distinctive chemical composition

15
Q

differentiation

A

is the repeated division of the ovum during early developmental stages. resulting in specialized cells that differ from one another

16
Q

mitosis

A

is the process of cell division in which a cell divides into two cells identical to the parent cell

17
Q

IPMAT

A
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
18
Q

meiosis

A

is cell division that takes place in the sex organs of animals to produce the egg and sperm required for fertilization, and in which the resultant cells have only one half the number of hereditary chromosomes as the parent cell

19
Q

the activity of the cells can be divide into what 3 categories?

A

vegetative,
growth and reproduction
specilaized

20
Q

metabolism

A

is the process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities

21
Q

anabolism

A

is the process of building up of larger molecules from smaller ones

22
Q

catabolism

A

is the breaking down of larger substances into smaller ones

23
Q

enzymes

A

are proteins that act as catalysts for chemical reactions in metabolism while remaining unchanged themselves

24
Q

adenosine triphosphate

A

ATP

a molecule that stores energy in the body and releases it when it breaks down into adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

25
Q

endoderm

A

innermost layer of cells of the zygote

26
Q

mesoderm

A

middle layer of cells of the zygote

27
Q

ectoderm

A

outermost layer of cells of the zygote

28
Q

epithelial tissue

A

is a protective layer that functions in the processes of absorption, excretion, secretion, and protection

29
Q

the classifications of epithelial tissue (3)

A

squamous - flat

cuboidal - small cube shape

columnar - tall or rectangular

30
Q

skeletal membrane

A

covers bone and cartilage

31
Q

periosteum

A

is a fibrous membrane that functions to protect the bone and serves as an attachment of tendons and ligaments

32
Q

perichondrium

A

is the membrane covering cartilage

33
Q

synovial membrane

A

is a connective tissue membrane lining cavities and capsules in and around joints

34
Q

skeletal muscles

A

are attached to bone by tendons and are responsible for moving the limbs, fascial expression, speaking, and other voluntary movements

35
Q

voluntary muscles

A

are skeletal muscles that can be activated by conscious effort

36
Q

smooth muscle tissue

A

lacks striations and cannot be stimulated to contract by conscious effort

37
Q

mucous membrane

A

produces mucus, a thick, sticky substance that acts as a protectant and lubricant

lines the surfaces of body cavities and canals that lead out of the body. respiratory and digestive

38
Q

serous membrane

A

produces serous fluid, a watery substance that also acts as a lubricant

lines the closed body cavities

in the body cavities is a special epithelial tissue called mesothelium
also little or no friction

39
Q

what are the three major serous membranes?

A

pleura encases the lungs

pericardium around the heart

peritoneum lines the abdominal cavity

40
Q

cardiac muscle tissue

A

occurs only in the heart and is responsible for pumping blood through the heart into the blood vessels

41
Q

nervous tissue

A

is composed of neurons; it initiates, controls, and coordinates the body’s adaptation to its surroundings

42
Q

neuron

A

is the structural unit of the nervous system

43
Q

areolar tissue

A

is loose connective tissue that binds the skin to the underlying tissues and fills the spaces between the muscles

44
Q

superficial fascia

A

refers to the connective tissue layer between the skin and those structures underlying the skin

45
Q

adipose tissue

A

is areolar tissue with an abundance of fat cells

46
Q

reticular tissue

A

is composed of fibers that form the framework of the liver and lymphoid organs

47
Q

dense connective tissue

A

is composed of collagen and elastin fibers that are closely arranged to form tendons and ligaments

48
Q

tendons

A

are bands that attach muscle to bone

49
Q

ligaments

A

ligabone

are bands or fibrous tissue that connect bones to bones

50
Q

fascia

A

fibrous connective tissue that forms a network throughout the body, surrounding every structure to support, seperate, and give shape to the body

51
Q

deep fascia

A

envelops and permeates the skeletal muscles.

refers to the fibrous tissue sheaths that penetrate deep into the body separating muscle groups

52
Q

fibrocartilage

A

is found between the vertebrae and pubic symphysis

53
Q

bone tissue

A

is connective tissue in which the intercellular substance is rendered hard by mineral salts, chiefly calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate

54
Q

hyaline cartilage

A

contains little fibrous tissue and is made up of cells embedded in a somewhat translucent matrix

nose
trachea
ends of bones
movable joints

55
Q

elastic cartilage

A

is the most resilient of cartilages

external ear
larynx
and similar structures

56
Q

liquid connective tissue

A

blood
lymph
interstitial fluid