Chapter 5 System 5 Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 System 5 Nervous System Deck (97)
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1
Q

Nerve fibers

A

Projections from the body of the nerve cell that carry nervous impulses

2
Q

Dendrites

A

Connect with other neurons to receive information

3
Q

Axon

A

Conducts impulses away from the cell body

4
Q

Synapse

A

The junction where nerve signals jump from one nerve to another

5
Q

Neurotransmitter

A

Is a chemical that sends a nerve signal across a synapse

6
Q

Sensory neuron

A

Carries impulses from sense organs to the brain

7
Q

Motor neuron

A

Carries nerve impulses from the brain to the effectors

8
Q

Interneuron

A

Carries impulses from one neuron to another

9
Q

Myelin sheath

A

Covers the axons of most nerves.
Made of fatty Schwann cells.
Insulates the nerve and aids in the conduction of the nerve impulse.

10
Q

Neurons have the ability to react to certain stimuli (____) and to transmit an impulse generated by that stimulus over a distance or to another neuron (____).

A

Irritability

Conduct ability

11
Q

Functionally, what are the three types of neurons?

A

Sensory / afferent neurons

Motor / efferent neurons

Interneurons / internuncial neurons

12
Q

Sensory / afferent neurons

A

Sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, or pain are carried as impulses to the brain

13
Q

Motor / efferent neuron

A

Carry nerve impulses from the brain to the effectors (the muscles or glands they control).

14
Q

Interneurons / internuncial neurons

A

Located in the brain and spinal cord.
Carries impulses from one neuron to another.
Transmit and direct impulses from one place in the spinal cord or brain to another

15
Q

Nerves

A

Are bundles of fibers held together by connective tissue that originate in the brain and spinal cord and distribute branches all over the body

16
Q

Afferent nerves

A

Carry impulses toward the spinal cord or brain

17
Q

Central nervous system

A

Consists of the brain and spinal cord

18
Q

Meninges

A

A special connective tissue membrane that covers the CNS incased by bone

19
Q

Meningitis

A

Is an acute inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid mater around the brain and spinal cord

20
Q

The three layers to meninges

A

Dura mater -outer -tough mother

Arachnoid mater -middle -spider layer

Pia mater - innermost -delicate mother

21
Q

The primary function of the nervous system is to…

A

Collect a multitude of sensory information;
Process, interpret, and integrate that information;
Initiate appropriate responses throughout the body

22
Q

The nervous system is composed of…

A

the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves

23
Q

Cerebrospinal fluid

A

Flows through and around the brain and spinal cord to nourish and protect them.

Main function is to protect the CNS by acting as a shock absorber for the delicate tissue

A clear fluid derived from the blood and secreted into the inner cavities or ventricles of the brain

24
Q

The brain

A

The principal nerve center

Body’s largest and most complex nerve tissue

Containing in excess of 10 billion neurons and innumerable nerve fibers

Located in and protected by the cranium

Controls sensations, muscles, glandular activity, power to think and feel emotion

25
Q

The brain includes… (4)

A
  1. Cerebrum
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Diencephalon
  4. Brain stem
26
Q

Cerebrum

A

Largest portion, making up the front and top of the brain

Mental activity; speech, sensations, communication, memory, reasoning, will, emotions

Divided by a central fissure into left and right cerebral hemispheres.
Which is connected by bundles of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Provides communication between left and right hemispheres

27
Q

The functions of the nervous system (4)

A
  1. To rule the body by controlling all visible and invisible activities
  2. To control human thought and conduct
  3. To govern all internal and external movements of the body
  4. To give the power to see, hear, move, talk, feel, think, and remember
28
Q

Neuron / nerve cell

A

Is the structural unit of the nervous system

28
Q

Cerebellum

A

Smaller part of the brain

Located below the cerebrum and at the back of the cranium

Helps to maintain body balance, coordinates voluntary muscles, makes muscular movement smooth and graceful

29
Q

Diencephalon

A

Includes the hypothalamus, thalamus, and pineal and pituitary glands

Located in the center of the brain

The pituitary gland is considered to be the master gland because it’s hormones control other endocrine glands

30
Q

Pituitary gland

A

Considered to be the master gland because it’s hormones control other endocrine glands

Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

31
Q

Brain stem

A

Has three parts; midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata

these contain intricate masses of nerve fibers that relay and transmit impulses from one portion of the brain to another

Midbrain; contains the main nerve pathways connecting the cerebrum with the lower nervous system

The pons; between midbrain and medulla oblongata. relays nerve impulses between cerebrum - medulla and cerebrum - cerebellum

Medulla; is an enlarged continuation of the spinal cord that extends from the foramen magnum to the pons and connects the brain to the spinal cord. Regulates movement of the heart and controls vasoconstriction of the arteries, also the depth and rate of respiration

32
Q

Spinal cord

A

Extends downward from the brain and is housed in and protected by the vertebral column

Consists of 31 segments

33
Q

Peripheral nervous system

A

Consists of all the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

34
Q

Autonomic nervous system

A

Regulates the action of glands, smooth muscles, and the heart

35
Q

Somatic nervous system

A

Consists of the nerves that connect the CNS to the voluntary muscles and skin

36
Q

Cranial nerves

A

12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain through openings in the base of the cranium

37
Q

Cervical plexus

A

Consists of the four upper cervical nerves that supply the skin and control the movement of the head, neck, and shoulders

38
Q

Brachial plexus

A

Is composed of four lower cervical nerves and the first pair of thoracic nerves that control arm movements

39
Q

Lumbar plexus

A

Is formed from the first four lumbar nerves

40
Q

Sacral plexus

A

Is formed from the fourth and fifth lumbar nerves, and the first four sacral nerves

41
Q

Sciatic nerve

A

Is the largest and longest nerve in the body

42
Q

Olfactory nerve

A

Sensory nerve

Nose

Sense of smell

43
Q
  1. Only
  2. Old
  3. Ostriches
  4. Tip
  5. Toe
  6. Fresh
  7. Acres
  8. Giving
  9. Vast
  10. Amounts
  11. Hope
A
Olfactory 
Optic
Oculomotor 
Trochlear 
Trigeminal or trifacial 
Abducent 
Facial
Acoustic
Glossipharyngeal
Vagus
Accessory "spinal"
Hypoglossal
44
Q

Optic nerve

A

Sensory nerve

Retina of eye

Sense of sight

45
Q

Oculomotor nerve

A

Motor and sensory (proprioceptive) nerve

Muscles of eye

Controls eye movements

46
Q

Trochlear nerve

A

Motor and sensory (proprioceptive) nerve

Superior oblique muscle of the eye

Rotates eyeball downward and outward

47
Q

Trigeminal or trifacial nerve

A

Motor and sensory nerve

Face, teeth, and tongue

Controls sensations of the face and movements of the jaw and tongue

48
Q

Abducent nerve

A

Motor and sensory (proprioceptive) nerve

Recti muscles of the eye

Rotates eyeball outward

49
Q

Facial nerve

A

Motor and sensory nerve

face and neck

Controls facial muscles of expression and some muscles of the neck and ear

50
Q

Acoustic or auditory nerve

A

Sensory nerve

Ear

Sense of hearing

51
Q

Glossopharyngeal nerve

A

Motor and sensory nerve

Tongue and pharynx

Sense of taste

52
Q

Vagus or pneumogastric nerve

A

Motor and sensory nerve

Pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs, and digestive organs

Controls sensations and muscular movements relating to talking, heart action, breathing, and digestion

53
Q

Spinal Accessory nerve

A

Motor nerve

Shoulder

Controls movements of neck muscles

54
Q

Hypoglossal nerve

A

Motor nerve

Tongue and neck

Controls movements of the tongue

55
Q

dermatoma

A

is an area of the skin supplied by nerve fibers originating from a single spinal nerve root

56
Q

sensory receptors can be characterized as…(5)

A
mechanoreceptors
thermoreceptors
photoreceptors
chemoreceptors
nociceptors
57
Q

mechanoreceptors

A

respond to mechanical stimulation or tissue distortion such as touch, pressure, vibration, and stretch.

In the skin;
ruffini end organs,
pacini corpuscles,
merkel disks

Proprioceptors located in the muscles, fascia, and joints. (Spindle cells and Golgi tendon organs)

58
Q

thermoreceptors

A

Located in the skin and and in the mouth.

Two types of thermoreceptors detect heat and cold

59
Q

chemoreceptors

A

Located in the mouth and nose

Are sensitive to certain chemical stimuli and gives us the sense of smell and taste

60
Q

photoreceptors

A

Two types of photoreceptors

Located in the retina of the eyes, rods, and cones are sensitive to light and detect color

They give us the ability to see color and form

61
Q

nocireceptors

A

Detect pain and are located in nearly every tissue in the body except the brain

They respond to extreme stimuli and tissue damage

Serve as a protective function by informing us that when something is wrong, it hurts

62
Q

autonomic nervous system

A

Regulates the action of glands, smooth muscles, and the heart

Circulation of blood, activity of digestion tract, respiration, and body temperature

Involuntary

Subdivided into…
Sympathetic system excited
Parasympathetic system inhibits

63
Q

sympathetic nervous system

A

Supplies the glands, involuntary muscles of internal organs, and walls of blood vessels with nerves and prepares the body for energy expending circumstances

Energy expending, stressful, or emergency situations

Increased respiration, dilated pupils, and increased heart rate and cardiac output

64
Q

parasympathetic nervous system

A

Functions to conserve energy and reverse the action of the sympathetic division

Calm, in a state of relaxation

Reduced heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure, and increased digestion and elimination

65
Q

neurologic pathway

A

Is the route that a nerve impulse travels through the nervous system

66
Q

reflex

A

Is the simplest form of nervous activity, which includes a sensory and motor nerve

67
Q

reflex arc

A

Is the nerve pathway of a reflex

68
Q

Withdrawal reflex / flexor reflex

A

Occurs when a person touches something sharp or hit and immediately pulls away, thereby preventing excessive injury

Automatic, unconscious, involuntary

69
Q

exteroceptors

A

Record conscious sensations such as heat, cold, pain, and pressure throughout the body

70
Q

the areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to reflex influences are…(5)

A
  1. The skin of the back between the shoulders
  2. The side of the chest between the fourth and sixth ribs
  3. The skin at the upper and inner portion of the though
  4. The skin overlying the gluteal muscles
  5. The sole of the foot
71
Q

proprioceptors

A

Sense where the body is and how it moves

System of sensory and motor nerve activity that provides info to the CNS about the position and rate of movement of different body parts

Located in the muscle, tendons, joints, or fascia.

Three major categories of proprioceptors are;
Muscle spindle cells
Golgi tendon organs
Joint proprioceptors

72
Q

muscle spindle cells

A

Sensory organs in muscle that detect the rate of stretch in muscles

Made up of a specialized contractile tissue called intrafusal muscle fibers

73
Q

golgi tendon ograns

A

Are multibranched sensory nerve endings located in tendons

Measure the amount of tension produced in muscle cells as a result of the muscles stretching and contracting
Also monitor the amount of force pulling on the bone to which the tendon attaches

74
Q

What are the two main types of joint proprioceptors?

A

Pacini’s corpuscles

Ruffini’s endings

These are mechanoreceptors located in the connective tissue or fascia surrounding the joints that sense the position and movements of the joints

75
Q

Neurologic disorders

A

Disease of the nervous system.

Birth defects, trauma, or degenerative disease

Infection, blood clots, tumors, or hemorrhage

76
Q

multiple sclerosis

A

Occurs in young adults and results from the breakdown of the myelin sheath

Is a degenerative nerve disease that affects the body’s ability to control the muscles

Symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, loss of coordination or balance, loss of bladder control

77
Q

parkinson’s disease

A

Occurs as a result of the degeneration of certain nerve tissues that regulate body movements

Degeneration of an area of the cerebrum that produces the neurotransmitter dopamine

Massage is useful to maintain flexibility, relax muscles, and relieve anxiety and depression

78
Q

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ALS

Aka Lou Gehrig’s disease

A

Progressive and eventually fatal neurological condition that causes the motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord to degenerate and die, causing weakness, spasticity, and atrophy of the voluntary muscles

Affects 2x as many men as women

Weakness or twitching of a leg, arm, or hand or slurred speech

3-5 years 50% death rate
10 years 90% death rate

Only attacks the motor neuron and does not affect the intelligence, memory, or personality, or the ability to taste, smell, and hear or the sense of touch

Massage can provide a great amount of comfort and relief

79
Q

spinal cord injury

SCI

A

Is caused by trauma or disease to the vertebral column or to the spinal cord itself

Complete injury; when there is no motor or sensory function below the injury level

Incomplete; when not all the spinal nerve fibers are affected and there is still some function

80
Q

quadriplegia or tetraplegia

A

Is paralysis of the arms and legs caused by a stroke or spinal cord injury

C-1 through T-1

81
Q

paraplegia

A

Paralysis of the lower extremities; does not affect the arms or hands

T-2 through S-5

82
Q

skin brushing

A

A light, brisk brushing using a dry vegetable bristle bath brush

Can help to reduce edema and improve the quality of the skin

83
Q

cerebrovascular accident / stroke

A

Is caused by a blood clot or ruptured blood vessel in or around the brain that subsequently destroys nerve tissue

3rd leading cause of death in USA

84
Q

hemiplegia

A

Is the condition of unilateral paralysis caused by a stroke

Contraindicated

85
Q

epilepsy

A

Is a neurologic condition in which there is an abnormal electrical activity in the CNS without apparent tissue abnormalities

Indicated for someone with a history of seizure disorder

86
Q

polio / poliomyelitis

A

Is a crippling or even deadly disease that affects the motor neurons of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord

Indicated with physician

87
Q

encephalitis

A

Refers to several related viral diseases that cause an inflammation of the brain or the meninges

Carried by animals or birds, mosquito bite, or it can arise as a secondary infection from measles, mumps, or chickenpox

88
Q

meningitis

A

Is an acute inflammation of the pia and arachnoid mater around the brain and spinal cord.

Is often a secondary infection from bacteria traveling from the middle ear, respiratory tract, lungs, or sinuses

Contraindicated during acute and active stages

89
Q

shingles

A

Is an acute inflammation of a nerve trunk and the dendrites at the end of the sensory neurons by the herpes zoster virus

Contraindicated because of the risk of infection

90
Q

neuritis

A

Inflammation of a nerve

Not a disease but a symptom of some other condition such as a herniated disk, herpes zoster, or diabetes mellitus.

Affects the nerves of the peripheral nervous system

91
Q

thoracic outlet syndrome

TOS

A

Is caused by a compression or entrapment of the brachial nerve plexus and/or blood vessels going to or from the arm

Results in pain, paresthesia, numbness, and/or weakness in the shoulder, neck, and arm

Indicated if caused by muscle

92
Q

carpal tunnel syndrome

A

Is the result of compression of the median nerve as it passes through the anatomical tunnel of the wrist, causing pain and weakness in the thumb and/or first three fingers

Repetitive stress injury

93
Q

Neuralgia

A

Pain associated with neuritis

94
Q

Polyneuritis

A

Generalized neuritis affecting several nerves

95
Q

Mononeuritis

A

Neuritis affects a specific nerve

96
Q

Pinched nerve

A

Can refer to any of a wide variety of conditions in which pressure on a nerve is responsible for pain, numbness, or a reduction of function

Could be a result of nerve compression or nerve entrapment

Indicated to relieve the constriction of soft tissue