Chapter 5 System 3 Muscular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 System 3 Muscular System Deck (65)
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1
Q

muscles comprise what % of body weight?

A

40% - 60%

2
Q

elasticity

A

The tissues ability to return to normal resting length when a stress that has been placed on it is removed

3
Q

extensibility

A

Is the ability of a muscle to stretch

4
Q

irritability

A

Or excitability, is the capacity of muscles to receive and react to stimuli

5
Q

which cells produce nearly all the movement in the body?

A

Muscle cells

6
Q

Contractility

A

Is the ability of a muscle to contract or shorten and thereby exert force

7
Q

superficial fascia

A

Situated just below the skin and covers the entire muscular system

8
Q

deep fascia

A

The fascia penetrates to the bone, separating muscle groups and covering individual muscles

9
Q

skeletal muscle

A

Striated and voluntary CNS (central nervous system)Cigar shapedMakes up fleshy areas of the body Attached to the skeleton, and are in turn fastened to the bones, skin, or other muscles

10
Q

smooth muscle

A

Visceral Smooth and involuntary ANS (autonomic nervous system) Spindle shaped, nonstriated cells that overlap at the ends Doesn’t attach to boneSlow actingCan maintain a contraction for a long time Doesn’t fatigue easily

11
Q

cardiac muscle

A

Found only in the heart Striated and involuntaryCells are quadrangular, joined end to end, and grouped in bundles supported by a frame work of connective tissue

12
Q

Are muscle cells multinucleated?

A

Yes, a single cell can have hundreds of nuclei distributed just beneath the cell membrane. These nuclei produce the enzymes and proteins necessary in muscle contraction

13
Q

spindle cells

A

Specialized muscle cells that have both sensory and motor functions are essential for muscle control and coordination.
Located in the belly of a muscle, alert the CNS as to the length, stretch, and speed of the muscle

14
Q

how long can ATP sustain a contraction?

A

There is only enough ATP stored in the muscle cells to sustain a contraction for a few seconds. Within a fraction of a second, ADP is reconstituted into ATP in one of several ways

15
Q

how many muscles are in the body?

A

Over 600 muscles, large and small

16
Q

what are the 4 characteristics of muscles?***

A

ICEE
Irritability or excitability. Contractility.
Elasticity.
Extensibility.

17
Q

endomyium

A

Within the fascicle, each muscle fiber has a delicate connective tissue covering Maintains its parallel position with other cells

18
Q

tendon

A

Fibrous connective tissue bands that attach muscle to bone

19
Q

ligament

A

Bands of fibrous tissue that connect bones to bones

20
Q

neuromuscular junction

A

Myoneural junctionThe site where the muscle fiber and nerve fiber meet

21
Q

sarcomere

A

The smallest functional unit of the muscle cell containing the actin and myosin filaments A band (dark, thick myosin filament)-M line-H zone-overlap zoneI band (light, thin actin filaments)-Z line

22
Q

muscle fatigue

A

Is a condition in which the muscle ceases to respond because of oxygen debt from rapid or prolonged muscle contractions

23
Q

muscle fibers types (I, II)

A

Type I.
Slow twitch Slow to fatigue Slow contraction Lots of mitochondriaLots of myoglobinPostural musclesType IIFast twitchFast to fatigueFast contractions (5x-10x faster)Little mitochondriaLittle myoglobinArms, legs, shoulders***chicken white breast meat

24
Q

white breast meat of chicken, which fibers of muscle make it up?

A

Type II fibers

25
Q

phasic muscle

A

Contains a higher proportion of type II fibersUsed for quick, infrequent, powerful movementMovers

26
Q

postural muscle

A

Contains a higher proportion of type I fibersStabilizersSupport the body against gravity. Slower to respond to stimulation Slower to fatigue

27
Q

origin and insertion

A

Origin of a muscle is the point where the end of a muscle is anchored to an immovable section of the skeleton.Insertion of a muscle is the more movable attachment of a muscle to bone.

28
Q

isometric contraction

A

Occurs when a muscle contracts and the ends of the muscle do not move

29
Q

isotonic contraction

A

Occurs when a muscle contracts and the distance between the ends of the muscle changes Concentric or eccentric

30
Q

concentric

A

In an isotonic contraction the distance between the ends of the muscle decreases

31
Q

eccentric

A

In an isotonic contraction the distance between the ends of muscle increases

32
Q

what muscle action occurs when you do a push up?

A

As you push up, the loaded muscles shorten, and is a concentric contractionAs you lower yourself to the floor , the loaded muscles are getting longer and is an eccentric contraction

33
Q

agonist

A

A prime moverThe primary muscle responsible for a specific movement

34
Q

antagonist

A

The muscle that performs the opposite movement of the agonist

35
Q

synergist

A

Muscles that assist the agonist

36
Q

Clonic

A

When spasms alternate between contraction and relaxation

37
Q

spasm

A

Most common muscle dysfunction Is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles. Vary in duration and intensityCan affect any muscle tissue (vol., invol., card.)I.e. Cramps, hiccups, tics, fast face twitches, torticollis, Charlie horse, convulsions, muscle splinting.

38
Q

Tonic

A

When spasms are sustained

39
Q

massaging over charlie horses

A

Massage directly on the site of an acute cramp or Charlie horse is contraindicated

40
Q

sprain

A

is an injury to a joint that results in the stretching or tearing of the ligaments but not severe enough to cause a dislocation

41
Q

strain

A

also called torn or pulled musclemost common injury to musclecontraindicated during the acute stages of muscle strain

42
Q

where do the majority of muscle strains occur?

A

80% of muscle strains occur in the muscle belly or at the junction between the muscle and the tendon (musculotendinous junction)

43
Q

hypertrophy

A

is an enlargement of the breadth of a muscle as a result of repeated forceful muscle activity

44
Q

contractures

A

are shortened, contracted muscles or muscle groups in which the muscle atrophies and shrinks while the connective tissue thickens.related to immobility or severe nerve damagemessage is beneficial in the early stages along with regular stretching

45
Q

Sarcolemma

A

Is the cell wall of the muscle cell

46
Q

fibromyalgia syndrome

A

characterized by pain, fatigue, and stiffness in the connective tissue of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments. associated with stress, poor sleep habits, and occupational or recreational strain.more prevalent in women.massage to desensitize trigger points and range of motion exercises are beneficialmassage should be gentle and done with great consideration of the condition.work in conjunction with clients physician

47
Q

Myosin

A

ThickA protein that forms filamentsMakes up nearly 50% of muscle tissue Involved in muscle contraction

48
Q

lupus erythematosus

A

is a chronic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue that can affect many body tissues and organs.autoimmune disorder that causes blood vessel inflammation, organ dysfunction, and arthritis.massage may be given only under the supervision of a physician

49
Q

Actin

A

ThinA protein that forms a filamentInteracts with myosin to cause muscle contractions

50
Q

transverse tubules

A

a system of channels within the muscle cell containing extracellular fluid that helps transmit nerve impulses throughout the cell

51
Q

sacroplasmic reticulum

A

is a network of membranous channels within the muscle cell that release calcium ions, causing muscle contraction

52
Q

sliding filament theory

A

the actin filaments slide across the myosin filaments to cause contraction

53
Q

motor unit

A

consists of a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it controls

54
Q

when a nerve impulse travels from the brain or spinal cord through the motor neuron and reaches the end of the nerve fiber, a chemical neurotransmitter called ____ is released and bridges the gap between the nerve end and muscle fiber

A

acetylcholine

55
Q

creatine phosphate

A

even though the energy cannot be used directly by the muscle, the energy causes the rebonding of the phosphate ion, producing ATP

56
Q

Aerobic cellular respiration

A

most of the energy to reconstitute ADP is the result of cellular respirationtakes place in the cells mitochondria

57
Q

krebs cycle

A

citric acid cyclein the mitochondria, a complex metabolic process takes place, resulting in the production of carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of heat and the synthesis of ATP

58
Q

anaerobic respiration

A

is a process in which glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygensynthesizes some ATP and produce pyruvic acid, which is converted to lactic acid, which is carried by the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted back to glucose

59
Q

oxygen debt

A

less efficient anaerobic respiration produces pyruvic and then lactic acid. As lactic acid accumulates, the person develops oxygen debt

60
Q

the 3 components of motion

A

flexion / extensionabduction / adductionrotation

61
Q

Describe the 3 grades of strains

A

grade 1 overstreching of a few muscle fibers with minimal fiber tears. some pain, no loss of function. no palpable or visual indicationsgrade 2 tearing between 10%-50% of the muscle fibers. pain. some loss of function. palpable thickening of the muscle tissue. possible tissue bleedinggrade 3 tearing between 50%-100% of muscle fibers. palpable depression and / or bunching of the muscle. severe pain. total or near total loss of function

62
Q

what is the preferred intervention during the acute stage of a muscle strain, which can last 24-72 hours depending on the severity.

A

PRICEprotectresticecompresselevate

63
Q

tendonitis and tenosynovitis

A

tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendon often occurring at the musculotendinous or tenoperiosteal junctiontenosynovitis is an inflammation of the tendon sheathmany times they occur simultaneously.contraindicated on the lesion during the acute stages of inflammation

64
Q

tendonosis

A

is a degenerative condition of a tendon that does not involve any inflammation. characterized by the degeneration of the collagen fibers in the tendon, tendon weakness, and abnormal growth of unhealthy blood vessels through the tendon

65
Q

dystrophy

A

a group of related diseases that seem to be genetically inherited and cause progressive degeneration of the voluntary muscular systemthe contractile fibers of the muscles are gradually replaced by fat and connective tissue until those muscles become useless