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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders Deck (104)
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61

What is the one year prevalence of panic disorder?

2.7%

62

What is the lifetime prevalence of panic disorder?

5%

63

What is the gender ratio of panic disorder?

2:1 (female:male)

64

When is the onset of panic disorder?

Ages 15-35 (rarely before puberty)

65

What is the etiology of panic disorder?

-Often biological predisposition (genetic, hypersensitive NS, oversensitive locus ceruleus)
-First panic attack may be triggered by street drugs, meds, medical condition, trauma
-Conditioning process

66

What is norepinephrine?

A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to panic disorder and depression

67

What is the locus ceruleus? Significance in panic attacks?

-A small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions
-Many of its neurons use norepinephrine

68

What comprises the brain circuit that produces panic attacks?

-Amygdala
-Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
-Central gray matter,
-Locus ceruleus

69

What are biological challenge tests?

A procedure used to produce panic in participants by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other potentially panic-inducing task in the presence of a researcher or therapist

70

What is anxiety sensitivity?

A tendency to focus on one's bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful

71

What are the educational treatments of panic disorder?

-Breathing exercises to prevent hyperventilating
-Relaxation training to reduce overall stress
-Reducing caffein intake
-Regular eating
-Encourage moderate aerobic exercise
-Conditioning process
-Knowing that panic is a normal fight/flight process

72

What are the cognitive exercises that help restructure thinking about panic?

-Identify negative thoughts and learn how to combat them
-Devise coping statements
-Distraction techniques
-Humor, distanciation

73

What are behavioral exercises to eliminate avoidance behavior related to panic disorder?

Exposure therapy and desensitization

74

What medications are used to treat panic attacks? When does each start working?

-Antidepressants = start working after weeks of daily intake
-Benzodiazepines = start working after 30-60 mins

75

Define obsession.

Intrusive, repetitive, anxiety-arousing thought or image

76

What are common themes of obsession?

-Contamination
-Harming somebody
-Driving off bridges
-Sexual ideas
-Order
-Symmetry

77

Define compulsion.

Need to perform acts to reduce anxiety

78

What are common behaviors/rituals of compulsion?

-Cleaning, washing
-Checking
-Counting
-Ordering
-Touching
-Licking
-Praying
-Seeking verbal reassurances from others

79

What is the DSM-V definition of OCD?

-Recurrent intrusive thoughts/images and/or compulsions
-Attempts made to suppress the thoughts or behaviors
-Symptoms present for at least 6 months
-Symptoms cause significant distress or dysfunction

80

When is the onset of OCD? When is it rare?

-Ages 4-25
-Rare after age 40, unless comorbid depression or pregnancy

81

What course does OCD take?

"Waxing and waning" = chronic course if not treated

82

What is the lifetime prevalence of OCD?

2.5%

83

What is the gender ratio of OCD?

1:1

84

What things are comorbid with OCD?

-Depression
-Other anxiety disorders
-Alcohol and cannabis abuse

85

What is the etiology of OCD?

-Biological (genetic predisposition, etc,)
-Conditioning process

86

Define isolation.

An ego defense mechanism in which people unconsciously isolate and disown undesirable and unwanted thoughts, experiencing them as foreign intrusions

87

Define undoing.

An ego defense mechanism whereby a person unconsciously cancels out an unacceptable desire or act by performing another act

88

What is reaction formation?

An ego defense mechanism whereby a person suppresses an unacceptable desire by taking on a lifestyle that expresses that opposite desire

89

What is exposure and response prevention?

A behavioral treatment for OCD that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his compulsive acts

90

Define neutralizing.

A person's attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts