Chapter 6: Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan Deck (206):
1

Thinking is defined as the _____ of mental representations.

manipulation

2

_____ includes the mental activities involved in the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of knowledge.

Cognition

3

The most rapid cognitive development takes place during the first few years of life when the brain is _____.

growing rapidly

4

Cognitive development is best described as a _____ process.

life long

5

A ______ is a label that represents a class or group of objects, people, or events that share common characteristics or qualities.

concept

6

We organize our thinking by using concepts, and concepts allow us to thing about something new by relating it to a ____ we already know.

concept

7

Some concepts are well defined, and each member of the concept has all of the defining properties; no ______ does...such as registered voters.

nonmembers
you either are registered to vote or note

8

Some concepts don't have defined featured but have at least some of the same characteristics such as ______, whcih range from chickens to sparrows.

birds

9

______ are objects or events that best represent a concept. A sparrow or robin would be considered a ______ bird by many individuals. New concepts are easier to learn if they are organized around a _____.

prototypes
prototypical
prototype

10

Elements of cognitive development include: 3

concepts
reasoning
problem solving

11

____ involves processing info to reach a conclusion.

reasoning

12

Reasoning includes evaluating and generating ____ to reach a conclusion.

arguments

13

Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from the specific to the _____.

general
i.e. drawing conclusions about all members of a category or concept based on only some members is inductive reasoning

14

Deductive reasoning is reasoning from the general to the _____.

specific.

15

Making a prediction based on a theory involves ______ reasoning.

deductive

16

______reasoning involves using mental procedures that yield valid conclusions.

logical

17

Problem solving is the mental activity used when we want to reach a certain goal that is not ______.

readily available

18

_______ includes understanding the problem; planning a solution; carrying out the solution; and evaluating the results.

problem solving

19

Problem representation or the way you think about a problem can make it easier or harder to _____.

solve

20

We can represent problems visually, ______, with symbols, or concretely with objects.

verbally

21

Piaget believed cognitive development proceeded through _____ stages.

four

22

Piaget cognitive development stages

sensorimotor intelligence
preoperations stage
concrete operations
formal operations

23

Piaget' cognitive development stage from birth to approximately 18 months of age.

sensorimotor intelligence stage

24

Piaget' cognitive development stage from 2 to 7 years of age.

preoperations stage

25

Piaget' cognitive development stage from 7 - 12 years of age.

concrete operations

26

Piaget' cognitive development stage from 12 years on.

formal operations

27

Children's thinking become more _____ as they progress through the stages with the end result being the capacity to think logically and to problem solve using abstract ______.

logical
concepts

28

Through a process Piaget called ______, children construct cognitive schema to organize their experiences.

adaptation

29

________ involves the complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation.

Adaptation

30

According to Piaget, the order in which children pass through the 4 stages of cognitive development dont vary but the ___ at which children pass through them can vary child to child.

rate

31

Piaget argued that each stage of cognitive development represents a ______ different way of thinking. Children in each stage think differently from children in other stages, because the way they think changes.

qualitatively

32

Vygotsky disagreed with _______explanation of cognitive development.

Piaget's

33

______ believed that children interact not only with objects in their environment but with people in a sociocultural context.

Vygotsky

34

______ is Vygotsky's term for how older adults transmit the values and beliefs of the culture to children.

Guided participation

35

Vygotsky used the term ______ to describe children's problem solving ability with and without the aid of an older guide.

zone of proximal development

36

In the zone of proximal development, Vygotsky believed that working alone, a child performs at the ____ level of his or her zone, but working with a teacher or parent, a child can perform at the ______.

lower level
upper level

37

Vygotsky observed that teachers and parents will adjust the amount of _____ they provide as the child shows more sophisticated problem solving behaviors.

scaffolding

38

______ believed that language also played a role in thinking.

Vygotsky

39

Social speech, speech that involves talking with other people, leads to ____, talking aloud to oneself, which eventually becomes ______.

private speech
inner speech

40

Three and four year olds often talk aloud which engaged in an activity which is an example of _____.

private speech

41

Often children increase the use of ______ speech when they are stuck on a problem or with a task.

inner speech

42

A relatively new and popular approach to studying ______ comes from the information processing approach.

cognition

43

In the information processing approach theorists use a _____ as a metaphor for the human mind, which is viewed as an information processing machine.

computer

44

Studying how the mind ____ info has led to new understanding about cognitive processes.

processes

45

_____ has received a great deal of attention by info processing theorists.

memory

46

Memory is information storage and involves the processes of registration, _____, storage, and retrieval.

encoding

47

______ theorists study cognitive development by examining changes to these and other processes that occur with age. They tend to argue that development is more _____

information processing
continuous than discontinuous

48

Changes that occur with age frequently are describes as _____ or speed improvements but not the emergence of qualitatively new processes.

capacity

49

The memory systems include: 3

sensory memory
working memory (primary or short term memory)
long term memory (secondary memory)

50

Information that comes into a sensory pereceptual system, registers automatically in ______ memory.

sensory

51

The sensory register holds info for a very brief period of time, up to _____.

only a few seconds

52

Information that is not transferred from sensory memory to ______ memory is lost. The process that causes this transfer is attention

working

53

______ is a cognitive resource, cognitive energy if you will, that captures sensory perceptual info for further processing.

Attenion

54

Attention to info in sensory memory moves that info to _______.

working memory

55

Info can be held in working memory for slightly longer time periods compared to sensory memory or retained even longer through the process of _________.

rehearsal

56

An example of rehearsal is repeating the telephone number of a pizzeria to yourself while you walk to the ____. If rehearsal stops, the info will be lost after ____ seconds unless it is further processed to be stored in ______.

telephone
long term memory

57

Working or short term memory is also limited in the amount of info it can hold _____.

at one time

58

The average adult can hold between ___ to ____ bits of info in short term memory.

5 - 9

59

______ proposed the magical number seven, plus or minus two, as the capacity of short term memory.

George Miller

60

The _____ of short term memory can be increased by using larger chunks of info or by what Miller referred to as chunking.

capacity

61

_____ involves organizing or grouping separate bits of info into larger units or chunks.

chunking

62

An example of ______ is when 5 8 1 2 7 8 6 3 is remembered as 58 12 78 63. This transforms eight bits of information into four, thereby freeing up space in short term memory.

chunking

63

Short term memory is also called ____ memory because a great deal of info processing takes place in that system.

working

64

Where does conscious thinking take place?

short term aka working memory

65

In order for info to be stored (transferred) into long term memory, it must be _____.

encoded.

66

The better the encoding done in short term memory, the better the chance the info can be retrieved from _____.

long term memory

67

Long term memory is the system that holds info for an _____ period of time.

extended

68

Some info processing theorists suggest long term memories are ____ and what we call forgetting is a failure of ______ not loss of memory. However, there is a great deal of disagreement and several competing theories of forgetting.

permanent
retrieval

69

Unlike short term memory, long term memory appears to have ______ storage capacity.

unlimited

70

Long term memory is very _____ system.

organized

71

Research has suggested that new memories are fit into a network of ______, organized knowledge.

pre-existing

72

What we think of as remembering is the process of locating and ______ info from long term storage.

retrieving

73

Retrieval can be either ___ or _____.

recall or recognition

74

_____ is remembering when the cue for retrieval is the info to be remembered.

recognition

75

Selecting the correct response to a multiple choice question is an example of ______.

recognition

76

_____, a much more difficult retrieval process, involves remembering after being given a less helpful cue.

recall

77

Answering teh question, "what did you eat for breakfast?" is an example of the ____ process.

recall

78

According to Piaget's theory, newborns are equipped with ___ perceptual systems that enable them to interact with the environment.

sensory

79

Young infants explore their environment by sucking on objects, holding and manipulating them, and visually tracking them. Out of this sensorimotor activity, infants construct ______.

sensorimotor schema.

80

A _____ is an organized pattern of action or though.

scheme

81

An example of a ____ is the grasping scheme in which an infant must coordinate a sequence of actions to succesfully grasp an object.

sensorimotor scheme

82

During Piaget's sensorimotor stage a child constructs ____ shema and improve their ability to engage in coordinated action. A child in this stage develops skills in _______ when the problem involves sensorimotor activities or goals.

motor
problem solving

83

During the ______ stage another achievement is object permanence.

sensorimotor

84

_______ can be tested by taking a toy and hiding it under a blanket in full view of the child then observing their reactions. Infants 4-8 months act as if an object is ____ there. Between 8-12 months of age a child will ___- under the blanket.

Object permanence
not there
search

85

Object permanence is not fully grasped according to Piaget until the _____ of the first stage, sensorimotor stage.

end.

86

The final achievements of the sensorimotor stage are _____ which is the ability to use one thing to stand for another, and deferred imitation.

symbolic representation

87

______ is illustrated in the pretend play of children. Children can and will use a broom for a horse.

symbolic representation

88

______ is modeling someone else's behavior some time after observing the model.

Deferred imitation

89

When a child engages in pretend play and shows deferred imitation, he or she has shifted into the second stage of ______.

preoperations

90

Piaget gave this stage the name peoperations because even though a child in this stage is capable of using mental schema (operations), these schema are not _____

logical

91

The preoperations stage describes the way that children in preschool and kindergarten go about _______.

problem solving

92

The _______ child lacks the logical concepts of conservation, classification, seriation, and class inclusion which develops in the next stage.

preoperational

93

______ is the understanding that the quantity of liquid, or number, or volume does not change unless you add or take some away.

conservation

94

Preoperational thinkers are fooled by the ____ change in how liquid looks and believe the quantity has changed when its in a small beaker and then a big beaker.

perceptual

95

_____ is the ability to rank order objects on a dimension like height or length.

seriation

96

_____ is the ability to organize items into groups based on shared characteristics or features.

classification

97

_______ is the ability to represent exemplars of categories in superordinate and subordinate levels.

class inclusion

98

_____ have difficulty keeping levels of a hierachically organized system in mind at the same time.

toddlers

99

Children in the _____ stage engage in egocentric thinking.

preoperational

100

Egocentric thinking are unable to take the _______ of another person.

perspective

101

Piaget first demonstrated egocentrism with his ______.

3 mountain task

102

_______ stage children do not reason logically about cause and effect, which is called transductive reasoning.

preoperational

103

Preoperational children engage in _____ thinking and project human abilities and traits onto inanimate objects.

animistic

104

Preoperational children's thinking lacks ____, that is the ability to mentally rewind a though.

reversibility

105

_____ operations and formal operations, describe cognitive development during the times that most students are in school.

concrete

106

The third stage, ____, is the beginning of operational thinking and describes the thinking of children between the ages of 7-11. learners at this age begin to decenter.

concrete operations

107

During concrete operations children can take into consideration _____ other then their own. Can perform transformations, meaning that they can understand reversibility, inversion, reciprocity, and conversion. They can make inferences about reality and engage in _____ reasoning.

viewpoints
inductive

108

_____ operations is the last stage of cognitive development and opens wide the higher-ordered, critical thinking.

formal

109

Formal operations describes the way of thinking for learners between the ages of _____ and constitutes the ultimate stage of cognitive development.

11-15

110

According to Piaget, not all people reach what stage?

Formal operations

111

The end goal of cognitive development for Piaget is ______ reasoning about abstract concepts.

hypothetico-deductive reasoning

112

Elkind pointed out that there is anew form of egocentrism that emerges in adolescence which he called adolescent _______.

egocentrism.

113

Adolescent egocentrism takes two forms, imaginary audience and _______.

personal fable

114

Imaginary audience comes from the belief that other people are _____ on what you think is important. I.e. your pimple.

focused

115

_____ is believing that what you feel and experience is unique.

Personal fable
i.e. the adolescent believes that no one else has ever been as sad, as happy, as in love

116

Labouvie-Vief suggests that there is an additional form of thought after adolescence called ______.

post formal operations

117

Labouvie-Vief's idea of post formal operations is a way of thinking that is characterized by the understanding that there is often more than one _____ to a problem.

right answer

118

To the relavistic thinker, truth is understood as ______ to the knower and problems are understood to have more than one possible solution.

relative

119

An ____ thinker thinks linearly and expects that there is one truth and that every problem has one correct solution.

absolute

120

Another capacity we tend to associate with adulthood and aging is _____.

wisdom

121

_______ is defined as insight into the practical problems of life.

wisdom

122

While we assume wisdom comes with age, research has shown that not all older adults are wise and that wisdom comes more from the ______ and richness of lived experience than from chronological age.

quality

123

Over the course of development, children use more and more sophisticated methods to _____, and their memory performance improves as a result.

remember

124

Although young infants (3 months or younger) demonstrate memory capability when they recognize and remember familiar people, smells, objects, etc., but the use of intentional strategies for remembering have not been documented until the age of _____.

two

125

The early strategies for remembering include looking, pointing, and ____.

naming

126

By early elementary school, children are using ____ as a method for remembering.

rehearsal

127

_____ is a generic term for a variety of memory strategies that involve repetition as a method of remembering (i.e. repeating the phone number over and over until you dial, writing your spelling words ten times).

rehearsal

128

While 3 and 4 year olds will rarely use the strategy of rehearsal, 10% of 5 year olds, ____% of 7 year old and nealry ____% of 10 year olds will.

50% of 7 year olds
85% of 10 year olds

129

Organization, or ______, strategies develop by 7-9 years of age and involve the semantic grouping of materials into meaningful units (i.e. by grouping words by their prefix)

clustering

130

______ strategies involve creating verbal or visual connections that add meaning to material and do not develop until adolescence or later.

elaborative
i.e. creating the phrase "Every good boy does fine" to remember that e,g,b,d, and f are the lines of the treble clef in music.

131

______ or the executive function is the capacity to be aware of one's own cognitive processing.

metacognition

132

_____ is one's knowledge about memory, and it has been divided into person (everything we know about the memory abilities of ourselves and others), task (everything we know about memory tasks), and strategy (everything we know about techniques of learning and remembering) factors.

Metamemory

133

As with strategy use, metamemory improves with _____ during childhood.

age

134

At first, young children are unrealistic and make overly optimistic predictions about their memories (i.e. they can remember everything) and with age they become more realistic in their expectations. They also know more about possible _____ for remembering with age.

strategies

135

Older children have a greater memory ____, coming closer to the adult capacity of 7 plus or minus 2 items.

capacity

136

Older children are more aware of effective memory strategies and are more likely to use ______ and elaboration over rehearsal.

organization

137

Older children also have more metamemory _____. These improvements continue through adolescence.

awareness

138

Researchers studying memory processing in adulthood describe a general decline in ______ and in speed of processing.

cognitive capacity

139

It is also possible that older adults do not perform as well on _____ tests as younger adults because of anxiety about their performance, _____ factors, or because of the non meaningful info that participants are typically asked to remember in a memory experiment.

memory
motivational

140

Older adults are able to compensate for changes in memory ability because of their increasing knowledge base, and _______ knowledge for important tasks.

specialized

141

Sieglar has studied problem solving in children using what he has called a ______ approach. He observed problem solving in participants aged 3-20 years to determine what aspects of the problem they focused on and what ______ they developed based on that info to solve the problem.

rule assessment
rule

142

Sieglar observed that most _____ will just guess at a solution.

3 year olds

143

Sieglar observed that 4 -5 year olds will select information they deem to be _____ and form a rule using that info. the issue with their problem solving is that they fail to take all ______ information into account when forming the rule.

important
important

144

By age ____, children are sophisticated in determining all of the info relevant to the problem and then forming a rule to apply in solving it.

12

145

_____ adults often perform best on problem solving tasks in domains in which they have a great deal of knowledge and experience. They solve problems more efficiently in their area of expertise than outside their expertise.

older

146

Older adults also outperform younger subjects on problem solving tasks that involve _____ problems.

everyday

147

This build up of domain specific knowledge and experience in solving everyday problems compensates for the slowing down of _____ processing that has been found in older adults.

cognitive

148

______ is the process of focusing on particular aspects of the sensory world.

attention

149

Infants attention is captured by stimuli more they they are capable of controlling and directing their ______.

attention

150

An infant's looking is attracted by a novel stimulus rather than _____ directed toward that stimulus.

intentionally

151

As a child develops, attention changes to become more selective and attention span ______.

lengthens

152

________ is directing one's attention toward a particular aspect of the sensory field while at the same time ignoring other distracting stimuli.

selective attention

153

Selective attention research has shown that the ability to guide one's attention begins around the age of ___.

two

154

During the school years, selective attention continues to improve, but children still have ____ ignoring distracting stimuli.

difficulty

155

______ are much better at selective attention tasks and do very well on tasks that require divided attention, which is systematically switching attention between 2 on going tasks.

Adolescents

156

Older adults perform more _____ than younger adults on selective attention and divided attention tasks. The more distracters during the task, the ____ older adults perform.

poorly
worse

157

The ability to ignore irrelevant stimulus appears to decline with ____.

age

158

Visual search experiments examine how participants search complex arrays for pre-identified targets by recording _______ during this search.

eye movements

159

Older children's searches are more systematic than _____ children.

younger

160

The eye movements of younger children appear to be ____ directed at different parts of the stimulus array.

randomly

161

Between ages ____ and ____, visual search of a stimulus becomes more controlled and systematic.

4-10

162

Adolescents continue to ____ visual search tasks.

improve

163

Older adults are ____ on visual search tasks than younger adults and because of their declining ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli, they do worse as the number of distracters in the array ______ or the similarity between the distracters and the target increases.

slower
increase

164

Older adults benefit from training on visual search tasks, so this decline does not appear to be _____.

irreversible

165

Some researchers report that on familiar and on less complex search tasks, older adults perform just as well as _____ adults.

yonger

166

Attention spans increase from ______ in 2 -3 year olds to more than an hour in six year olds.

18 minutes

167

Learning to read requires these attentional capacities and is probably the most significant attention perceptual ______ for children.

challenge

168

Throughout adolescense and adulthood attention span _____.

lengthens

169

The time from 2 - 5 years has been named the ____ years.

play

170

Play serves a variety of function in children's ______.

development.

171

Play, reflects, as well as stimulates, _____ development, and it helps children develop social interaction skills.

cognitive

172

The child engages in several major categories of play: sensorimotor (or functional) play, ____, parallel play, associative play, or _____ play.

pretend play
cooperative play

173

The type of play children are engaged in depends on the existence and degree of interaction among _____.

the players

174

____ play is engaged in during infancy and involves the manipulation of objects.

sensorimotor play

175

Sensorimotor or functional play provides the child with pleasurable stimulation but also serves a cognitive purpose as described by ____.

piaget

176

_____ play also consists of motor activities such as crawling, walking, running, or waving.

sensorimotor or functional
i.e. older infants or toddlers pushing a toy car back and forth for no reason

177

_____ or imaginative play involves games of make believe. According to Piaget this type of play requires the cognitive ability of ______.

pretend
symbolic representation

178

______ is a major form of imaginative play. However, it involves no physical activity as compared to the other types of play. It's pure imaginative play.

daydreaming

179

____ play begins shortly after infancy in which children play side by side but do not interact. They might use the same play materials but any sharing is unintentional.

parallel play

180

_____ and _____ year olds gradually engage in more associative play than parallel play.

4-5

181

_____ play is when children playing near each other interact and may intentionally share tools or toys during play, but their play does not have a common goal.

associative

182

Between the ages of two and five, children begin to act out fantasies, pretending that they are ____. When children find that they share knowledge of various characters or fantasies, they engage in ____ play as they act out fantasies together.

various characters
cooperative

183

Any type of play that involves interaction and cooperation among the players is called _____.

cooperative

184

One special type of cooperative play is called ______ play. This type requires that the child's imagination and perception be highly active and alert quick to pick up cues from the other players. It's comparable to the improvisation of professional actors.

sociodramatic

185

Through ______ play, the child learns how to behave in society. In addition, the groundwork is laid for interpersonal relationship.s

sociodramatic

186

In addition to teaching the child how to interact socially, play is also an influencing factor in ______.

cognition

187

Sutton-Smith considered play an activity in which the infant can work through new responses and ____ and increase his or her range of responses.

operations

188

Sutton-Smith called play a mechanism for the "______"

socialization of novelty

189

Sutton-Smith believed children who play is varied are given a chance to experience situations that increase their ability to respond _______ to novel situations that may arise in the future.

appropriately

190

Children whose play is ______ are less able to respond in unfamiliar situations. Thus, play enlarges a child's repertoire of responses and thereby allows him or her to adjust quickly to new situations.

restricted

191

There are cultural and ____ influences on cognitive development.

environment

192

There are many factors, that cause intellectual disability in children that stem from prenatal and childhood _____.

environments

193

Although the domains of development (biological, cognitive, psychosocial, are discussed separately, they in fact interact ______.

throughout life

194

Poor nutrition or poor ______, can have a negative impact on cognitive development.

social relationships

195

Early childhood education programs can ______ influence cognitive development.

positively

196

The key factors of early childhood education programs that promote cognitive growth are having a staff that feels qualified to create an appropriate curriculum and to respond to the _____ needs of children, taking a holisitc approach when designing the curriculum so activities in different domains like music and ____ are integrated and having parents involved in the program.

educational
reading

197

The ____ environment cna have an affect on cognitive development.

family

198

Caldwell and Bradley have developed the ______ scale to assess the amount of intellectual stimulation int he home environment.

HOME
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment

199

HOME measures things such as the amount of appropriate play materials, ______ with children, and the amount of intellectual stimulation (i.e. number of books in the home).

parental involvement

200

Studies have shown that scores on the HOME scale positively correlate with later measures of _____.

intelligence

201

Adopted children show gains in IQ scores when they move from an impoverished household to a _______ one.

stimulating

202

Children who live in households with high HOME scores tend to show gains in ______ between the ages of 1 and 3 years old, while the opposite is true of children from households with low HOME scores. These patterns hold for European American and ____ households but not Mexican American households. More research is needed.

IQ scores
African American

203

Developmental psychologists have investigated whether the pattern of cognitive development described by Piaget Piaget is _____, found in all children.

universal

204

_____ pioneered the study of cultural influences on cognitive development to test this universality.

Michael Cole

205

Michael Cole's study of the development of thinking in children from non-Western cultures showed children in those cultures took longer to achieve _____ and were unable to achieve formal operations. The explanation for this difference is that the achievement of these stages correlates with formal schooling. Cultures that define intelligence as logical, hypothetico-deductive thought design schooling to foster the development of this type of ____.

concrete operations
reasoning

206

Culture influences _____ development.

cogntive