Flashcards in Chapter 6: Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan Deck (206):
Thinking is defined as the _____ of mental representations.
_____ includes the mental activities involved in the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of knowledge.
The most rapid cognitive development takes place during the first few years of life when the brain is _____.
Cognitive development is best described as a _____ process.
A ______ is a label that represents a class or group of objects, people, or events that share common characteristics or qualities.
We organize our thinking by using concepts, and concepts allow us to thing about something new by relating it to a ____ we already know.
Some concepts are well defined, and each member of the concept has all of the defining properties; no ______ does...such as registered voters.
you either are registered to vote or note
Some concepts don't have defined featured but have at least some of the same characteristics such as ______, whcih range from chickens to sparrows.
______ are objects or events that best represent a concept. A sparrow or robin would be considered a ______ bird by many individuals. New concepts are easier to learn if they are organized around a _____.
Elements of cognitive development include: 3
____ involves processing info to reach a conclusion.
Reasoning includes evaluating and generating ____ to reach a conclusion.
Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from the specific to the _____.
i.e. drawing conclusions about all members of a category or concept based on only some members is inductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning is reasoning from the general to the _____.
Making a prediction based on a theory involves ______ reasoning.
______reasoning involves using mental procedures that yield valid conclusions.
Problem solving is the mental activity used when we want to reach a certain goal that is not ______.
_______ includes understanding the problem; planning a solution; carrying out the solution; and evaluating the results.
Problem representation or the way you think about a problem can make it easier or harder to _____.
We can represent problems visually, ______, with symbols, or concretely with objects.
Piaget believed cognitive development proceeded through _____ stages.
Piaget cognitive development stages
Piaget' cognitive development stage from birth to approximately 18 months of age.
sensorimotor intelligence stage
Piaget' cognitive development stage from 2 to 7 years of age.
Piaget' cognitive development stage from 7 - 12 years of age.
Piaget' cognitive development stage from 12 years on.
Children's thinking become more _____ as they progress through the stages with the end result being the capacity to think logically and to problem solve using abstract ______.
Through a process Piaget called ______, children construct cognitive schema to organize their experiences.
________ involves the complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation.
According to Piaget, the order in which children pass through the 4 stages of cognitive development dont vary but the ___ at which children pass through them can vary child to child.
Piaget argued that each stage of cognitive development represents a ______ different way of thinking. Children in each stage think differently from children in other stages, because the way they think changes.
Vygotsky disagreed with _______explanation of cognitive development.
______ believed that children interact not only with objects in their environment but with people in a sociocultural context.
______ is Vygotsky's term for how older adults transmit the values and beliefs of the culture to children.
Vygotsky used the term ______ to describe children's problem solving ability with and without the aid of an older guide.
zone of proximal development
In the zone of proximal development, Vygotsky believed that working alone, a child performs at the ____ level of his or her zone, but working with a teacher or parent, a child can perform at the ______.
Vygotsky observed that teachers and parents will adjust the amount of _____ they provide as the child shows more sophisticated problem solving behaviors.
______ believed that language also played a role in thinking.
Social speech, speech that involves talking with other people, leads to ____, talking aloud to oneself, which eventually becomes ______.
Three and four year olds often talk aloud which engaged in an activity which is an example of _____.
Often children increase the use of ______ speech when they are stuck on a problem or with a task.
A relatively new and popular approach to studying ______ comes from the information processing approach.
In the information processing approach theorists use a _____ as a metaphor for the human mind, which is viewed as an information processing machine.
Studying how the mind ____ info has led to new understanding about cognitive processes.
_____ has received a great deal of attention by info processing theorists.
Memory is information storage and involves the processes of registration, _____, storage, and retrieval.
______ theorists study cognitive development by examining changes to these and other processes that occur with age. They tend to argue that development is more _____
continuous than discontinuous
Changes that occur with age frequently are describes as _____ or speed improvements but not the emergence of qualitatively new processes.
The memory systems include: 3
working memory (primary or short term memory)
long term memory (secondary memory)
Information that comes into a sensory pereceptual system, registers automatically in ______ memory.
The sensory register holds info for a very brief period of time, up to _____.
only a few seconds
Information that is not transferred from sensory memory to ______ memory is lost. The process that causes this transfer is attention
______ is a cognitive resource, cognitive energy if you will, that captures sensory perceptual info for further processing.
Attention to info in sensory memory moves that info to _______.
Info can be held in working memory for slightly longer time periods compared to sensory memory or retained even longer through the process of _________.
An example of rehearsal is repeating the telephone number of a pizzeria to yourself while you walk to the ____. If rehearsal stops, the info will be lost after ____ seconds unless it is further processed to be stored in ______.
long term memory
Working or short term memory is also limited in the amount of info it can hold _____.
at one time
The average adult can hold between ___ to ____ bits of info in short term memory.
5 - 9
______ proposed the magical number seven, plus or minus two, as the capacity of short term memory.
The _____ of short term memory can be increased by using larger chunks of info or by what Miller referred to as chunking.
_____ involves organizing or grouping separate bits of info into larger units or chunks.
An example of ______ is when 5 8 1 2 7 8 6 3 is remembered as 58 12 78 63. This transforms eight bits of information into four, thereby freeing up space in short term memory.
Short term memory is also called ____ memory because a great deal of info processing takes place in that system.
Where does conscious thinking take place?
short term aka working memory
In order for info to be stored (transferred) into long term memory, it must be _____.
The better the encoding done in short term memory, the better the chance the info can be retrieved from _____.
long term memory
Long term memory is the system that holds info for an _____ period of time.
Some info processing theorists suggest long term memories are ____ and what we call forgetting is a failure of ______ not loss of memory. However, there is a great deal of disagreement and several competing theories of forgetting.
Unlike short term memory, long term memory appears to have ______ storage capacity.
Long term memory is very _____ system.
Research has suggested that new memories are fit into a network of ______, organized knowledge.
What we think of as remembering is the process of locating and ______ info from long term storage.
Retrieval can be either ___ or _____.
recall or recognition
_____ is remembering when the cue for retrieval is the info to be remembered.
Selecting the correct response to a multiple choice question is an example of ______.
_____, a much more difficult retrieval process, involves remembering after being given a less helpful cue.
Answering teh question, "what did you eat for breakfast?" is an example of the ____ process.
According to Piaget's theory, newborns are equipped with ___ perceptual systems that enable them to interact with the environment.
Young infants explore their environment by sucking on objects, holding and manipulating them, and visually tracking them. Out of this sensorimotor activity, infants construct ______.
A _____ is an organized pattern of action or though.
An example of a ____ is the grasping scheme in which an infant must coordinate a sequence of actions to succesfully grasp an object.
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage a child constructs ____ shema and improve their ability to engage in coordinated action. A child in this stage develops skills in _______ when the problem involves sensorimotor activities or goals.
During the ______ stage another achievement is object permanence.
_______ can be tested by taking a toy and hiding it under a blanket in full view of the child then observing their reactions. Infants 4-8 months act as if an object is ____ there. Between 8-12 months of age a child will ___- under the blanket.
Object permanence is not fully grasped according to Piaget until the _____ of the first stage, sensorimotor stage.
The final achievements of the sensorimotor stage are _____ which is the ability to use one thing to stand for another, and deferred imitation.
______ is illustrated in the pretend play of children. Children can and will use a broom for a horse.
______ is modeling someone else's behavior some time after observing the model.
When a child engages in pretend play and shows deferred imitation, he or she has shifted into the second stage of ______.
Piaget gave this stage the name peoperations because even though a child in this stage is capable of using mental schema (operations), these schema are not _____
The preoperations stage describes the way that children in preschool and kindergarten go about _______.
The _______ child lacks the logical concepts of conservation, classification, seriation, and class inclusion which develops in the next stage.
______ is the understanding that the quantity of liquid, or number, or volume does not change unless you add or take some away.
Preoperational thinkers are fooled by the ____ change in how liquid looks and believe the quantity has changed when its in a small beaker and then a big beaker.
_____ is the ability to rank order objects on a dimension like height or length.
_____ is the ability to organize items into groups based on shared characteristics or features.
_______ is the ability to represent exemplars of categories in superordinate and subordinate levels.
_____ have difficulty keeping levels of a hierachically organized system in mind at the same time.
Children in the _____ stage engage in egocentric thinking.
Egocentric thinking are unable to take the _______ of another person.
Piaget first demonstrated egocentrism with his ______.
3 mountain task
_______ stage children do not reason logically about cause and effect, which is called transductive reasoning.
Preoperational children engage in _____ thinking and project human abilities and traits onto inanimate objects.
Preoperational children's thinking lacks ____, that is the ability to mentally rewind a though.
_____ operations and formal operations, describe cognitive development during the times that most students are in school.
The third stage, ____, is the beginning of operational thinking and describes the thinking of children between the ages of 7-11. learners at this age begin to decenter.
During concrete operations children can take into consideration _____ other then their own. Can perform transformations, meaning that they can understand reversibility, inversion, reciprocity, and conversion. They can make inferences about reality and engage in _____ reasoning.
_____ operations is the last stage of cognitive development and opens wide the higher-ordered, critical thinking.
Formal operations describes the way of thinking for learners between the ages of _____ and constitutes the ultimate stage of cognitive development.
According to Piaget, not all people reach what stage?
The end goal of cognitive development for Piaget is ______ reasoning about abstract concepts.
Elkind pointed out that there is anew form of egocentrism that emerges in adolescence which he called adolescent _______.
Adolescent egocentrism takes two forms, imaginary audience and _______.
Imaginary audience comes from the belief that other people are _____ on what you think is important. I.e. your pimple.
_____ is believing that what you feel and experience is unique.
i.e. the adolescent believes that no one else has ever been as sad, as happy, as in love
Labouvie-Vief suggests that there is an additional form of thought after adolescence called ______.
post formal operations
Labouvie-Vief's idea of post formal operations is a way of thinking that is characterized by the understanding that there is often more than one _____ to a problem.
To the relavistic thinker, truth is understood as ______ to the knower and problems are understood to have more than one possible solution.
An ____ thinker thinks linearly and expects that there is one truth and that every problem has one correct solution.
Another capacity we tend to associate with adulthood and aging is _____.
_______ is defined as insight into the practical problems of life.
While we assume wisdom comes with age, research has shown that not all older adults are wise and that wisdom comes more from the ______ and richness of lived experience than from chronological age.
Over the course of development, children use more and more sophisticated methods to _____, and their memory performance improves as a result.
Although young infants (3 months or younger) demonstrate memory capability when they recognize and remember familiar people, smells, objects, etc., but the use of intentional strategies for remembering have not been documented until the age of _____.
The early strategies for remembering include looking, pointing, and ____.
By early elementary school, children are using ____ as a method for remembering.
_____ is a generic term for a variety of memory strategies that involve repetition as a method of remembering (i.e. repeating the phone number over and over until you dial, writing your spelling words ten times).
While 3 and 4 year olds will rarely use the strategy of rehearsal, 10% of 5 year olds, ____% of 7 year old and nealry ____% of 10 year olds will.
50% of 7 year olds
85% of 10 year olds
Organization, or ______, strategies develop by 7-9 years of age and involve the semantic grouping of materials into meaningful units (i.e. by grouping words by their prefix)
______ strategies involve creating verbal or visual connections that add meaning to material and do not develop until adolescence or later.
i.e. creating the phrase "Every good boy does fine" to remember that e,g,b,d, and f are the lines of the treble clef in music.
______ or the executive function is the capacity to be aware of one's own cognitive processing.
_____ is one's knowledge about memory, and it has been divided into person (everything we know about the memory abilities of ourselves and others), task (everything we know about memory tasks), and strategy (everything we know about techniques of learning and remembering) factors.
As with strategy use, metamemory improves with _____ during childhood.
At first, young children are unrealistic and make overly optimistic predictions about their memories (i.e. they can remember everything) and with age they become more realistic in their expectations. They also know more about possible _____ for remembering with age.
Older children have a greater memory ____, coming closer to the adult capacity of 7 plus or minus 2 items.
Older children are more aware of effective memory strategies and are more likely to use ______ and elaboration over rehearsal.
Older children also have more metamemory _____. These improvements continue through adolescence.
Researchers studying memory processing in adulthood describe a general decline in ______ and in speed of processing.
It is also possible that older adults do not perform as well on _____ tests as younger adults because of anxiety about their performance, _____ factors, or because of the non meaningful info that participants are typically asked to remember in a memory experiment.
Older adults are able to compensate for changes in memory ability because of their increasing knowledge base, and _______ knowledge for important tasks.
Sieglar has studied problem solving in children using what he has called a ______ approach. He observed problem solving in participants aged 3-20 years to determine what aspects of the problem they focused on and what ______ they developed based on that info to solve the problem.
Sieglar observed that most _____ will just guess at a solution.
3 year olds
Sieglar observed that 4 -5 year olds will select information they deem to be _____ and form a rule using that info. the issue with their problem solving is that they fail to take all ______ information into account when forming the rule.
By age ____, children are sophisticated in determining all of the info relevant to the problem and then forming a rule to apply in solving it.
_____ adults often perform best on problem solving tasks in domains in which they have a great deal of knowledge and experience. They solve problems more efficiently in their area of expertise than outside their expertise.
Older adults also outperform younger subjects on problem solving tasks that involve _____ problems.
This build up of domain specific knowledge and experience in solving everyday problems compensates for the slowing down of _____ processing that has been found in older adults.
______ is the process of focusing on particular aspects of the sensory world.
Infants attention is captured by stimuli more they they are capable of controlling and directing their ______.
An infant's looking is attracted by a novel stimulus rather than _____ directed toward that stimulus.
As a child develops, attention changes to become more selective and attention span ______.
________ is directing one's attention toward a particular aspect of the sensory field while at the same time ignoring other distracting stimuli.
Selective attention research has shown that the ability to guide one's attention begins around the age of ___.
During the school years, selective attention continues to improve, but children still have ____ ignoring distracting stimuli.
______ are much better at selective attention tasks and do very well on tasks that require divided attention, which is systematically switching attention between 2 on going tasks.
Older adults perform more _____ than younger adults on selective attention and divided attention tasks. The more distracters during the task, the ____ older adults perform.
The ability to ignore irrelevant stimulus appears to decline with ____.
Visual search experiments examine how participants search complex arrays for pre-identified targets by recording _______ during this search.
Older children's searches are more systematic than _____ children.
The eye movements of younger children appear to be ____ directed at different parts of the stimulus array.
Between ages ____ and ____, visual search of a stimulus becomes more controlled and systematic.
Adolescents continue to ____ visual search tasks.
Older adults are ____ on visual search tasks than younger adults and because of their declining ability to ignore irrelevant stimuli, they do worse as the number of distracters in the array ______ or the similarity between the distracters and the target increases.
Older adults benefit from training on visual search tasks, so this decline does not appear to be _____.
Some researchers report that on familiar and on less complex search tasks, older adults perform just as well as _____ adults.
Attention spans increase from ______ in 2 -3 year olds to more than an hour in six year olds.
Learning to read requires these attentional capacities and is probably the most significant attention perceptual ______ for children.
Throughout adolescense and adulthood attention span _____.
The time from 2 - 5 years has been named the ____ years.
Play serves a variety of function in children's ______.
Play, reflects, as well as stimulates, _____ development, and it helps children develop social interaction skills.
The child engages in several major categories of play: sensorimotor (or functional) play, ____, parallel play, associative play, or _____ play.
The type of play children are engaged in depends on the existence and degree of interaction among _____.
____ play is engaged in during infancy and involves the manipulation of objects.
Sensorimotor or functional play provides the child with pleasurable stimulation but also serves a cognitive purpose as described by ____.
_____ play also consists of motor activities such as crawling, walking, running, or waving.
sensorimotor or functional
i.e. older infants or toddlers pushing a toy car back and forth for no reason
_____ or imaginative play involves games of make believe. According to Piaget this type of play requires the cognitive ability of ______.
______ is a major form of imaginative play. However, it involves no physical activity as compared to the other types of play. It's pure imaginative play.
____ play begins shortly after infancy in which children play side by side but do not interact. They might use the same play materials but any sharing is unintentional.
_____ and _____ year olds gradually engage in more associative play than parallel play.
_____ play is when children playing near each other interact and may intentionally share tools or toys during play, but their play does not have a common goal.
Between the ages of two and five, children begin to act out fantasies, pretending that they are ____. When children find that they share knowledge of various characters or fantasies, they engage in ____ play as they act out fantasies together.
Any type of play that involves interaction and cooperation among the players is called _____.
One special type of cooperative play is called ______ play. This type requires that the child's imagination and perception be highly active and alert quick to pick up cues from the other players. It's comparable to the improvisation of professional actors.
Through ______ play, the child learns how to behave in society. In addition, the groundwork is laid for interpersonal relationship.s
In addition to teaching the child how to interact socially, play is also an influencing factor in ______.
Sutton-Smith considered play an activity in which the infant can work through new responses and ____ and increase his or her range of responses.
Sutton-Smith called play a mechanism for the "______"
socialization of novelty
Sutton-Smith believed children who play is varied are given a chance to experience situations that increase their ability to respond _______ to novel situations that may arise in the future.
Children whose play is ______ are less able to respond in unfamiliar situations. Thus, play enlarges a child's repertoire of responses and thereby allows him or her to adjust quickly to new situations.
There are cultural and ____ influences on cognitive development.
There are many factors, that cause intellectual disability in children that stem from prenatal and childhood _____.
Although the domains of development (biological, cognitive, psychosocial, are discussed separately, they in fact interact ______.
Poor nutrition or poor ______, can have a negative impact on cognitive development.
Early childhood education programs can ______ influence cognitive development.
The key factors of early childhood education programs that promote cognitive growth are having a staff that feels qualified to create an appropriate curriculum and to respond to the _____ needs of children, taking a holisitc approach when designing the curriculum so activities in different domains like music and ____ are integrated and having parents involved in the program.
The ____ environment cna have an affect on cognitive development.
Caldwell and Bradley have developed the ______ scale to assess the amount of intellectual stimulation int he home environment.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment
HOME measures things such as the amount of appropriate play materials, ______ with children, and the amount of intellectual stimulation (i.e. number of books in the home).
Studies have shown that scores on the HOME scale positively correlate with later measures of _____.
Adopted children show gains in IQ scores when they move from an impoverished household to a _______ one.
Children who live in households with high HOME scores tend to show gains in ______ between the ages of 1 and 3 years old, while the opposite is true of children from households with low HOME scores. These patterns hold for European American and ____ households but not Mexican American households. More research is needed.
Developmental psychologists have investigated whether the pattern of cognitive development described by Piaget Piaget is _____, found in all children.
_____ pioneered the study of cultural influences on cognitive development to test this universality.
Michael Cole's study of the development of thinking in children from non-Western cultures showed children in those cultures took longer to achieve _____ and were unable to achieve formal operations. The explanation for this difference is that the achievement of these stages correlates with formal schooling. Cultures that define intelligence as logical, hypothetico-deductive thought design schooling to foster the development of this type of ____.