Chapter 7 powerpoint pt.2/ Chapter 8 powerpoint pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 powerpoint pt.2/ Chapter 8 powerpoint pt. 1 Deck (33):

What is the social prestige ranking in America?

The top 1% have 35% of net worth.
The bottom 80% is 11% of net worth.


What are the social classes in America?

Upper class, middle class, and lower class


Do Americans tend to accurately predict social class mobility?

No, they tend to over or underestimate.


What are the two reasons why Americans don’t accurately gauge social mobility?

1. Exposure to genetic determinants of social class
2. Need to protect the self


What is the free rider problem?

The notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each to dodge responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight.


What is socioeconomic status?

refers to an individual’s position in a stratified social order.


Of the following thinkers, whose ideas about private property and social conflict could be said to align most closely with those of Karl Marx?
A. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
B. Thomas Malthus
C. Vilfredo Pareto
D. John Millar

A. Jean-Jacques Rousseau


Which of the following standards of equality was key to the arguments of civil rights leaders in the 1960s?
A. equality of opportunity
B. equality of condition
C. ontological equality
D. equality of outcome

A. equality of opportunity


Wright Mills sees the consolidation of power among a small number of institutions and leaders as _______.
A. the natural result of a meritocracy
B. the best possible way for a society to function
C. a necessary evil for the smooth functioning of society
D. harmful to the interests of the masses

D. harmful to the interests of the masses


Socioeconomic status can best be defined as ________________.
A. an individual’s position in a status hierarchy system
B. the level of social mobility an individual experiences in his or her life
C. an individual’s position in a stratified social order
D. the total of an individual’s assets

C. an individual’s position in a stratified social order


The _________ is a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility.
A. estate system
B. class system
C. caste system
D. elite-mass dichotomy system

A. estate system


Which of the following is an example of an asset?
A. a projected salary increase
B. a piece of property
C. a person’s human capital
D. all of the above
E. none of the above

B. a piece of property


What is the social construction of sex?

Sex refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female, or intersex ( genitals, gonads, sex chromosomes ).


What is the social construction of gender?

society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific gender.


Gender is defined by _______/_______.



What is the social construction of sexuality?

Sexuality refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior.


Explain the Kinsey Scale.

Sexuality is on a spectrum.
Ranges on a scale from 0-6; 0 being completely heterosexual and 6 being completely homosexual.


What are the types of gender?



What is the difference between transgender and transexual?

Transgender gender identity different than assigned sex.
Transexual desires medical assistance to transition to different sex.


What is the difference between genderqueer and cisgender?

Genderqueer  people whose identities are not exclusively masculine or feminine, but may, for example, be bigender, pangender, or agender.
Cisgender gender identity same as assigned sex.


What are the types of sex?

male, female, and intersex


What is gender binary?

belief in only two distinct and opposite sexes — male and female


What is essentialism?

Essentialism is the notion that a label has a fixed essence (naturally evolved dispositions).


What are the 4 criticisms of essentialism?

1. they ignore historical and cultural variability
2. they generalize from the average, ignoring variations within gender groups
3. no evidence directly supports their major claims
4. their explanations fro gender differences ignore the role of power


What is feminism?

Feminism is an intellectual, consciousness-raising movement based on the idea that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect.


Describe the first wave of feminism.

It occurred from 1800s-1920.
Women won the right to vote (suffrage movement).


Describe the second wave of feminism.

-It occurred from the 1960s-1970s.
-Equal access to employment and education
-concerns about reproductive rights, domestic violence, marital rape, & family
-Largely white, middle class


Describe the third wave of feminism.

Occurs from the 1990s-current.
-Issues of diversity and the variety of identities that women can possess.
-Addresses essentialist definitions of femininity.


What is Hegemonic masculinity?

the condition in which men are dominant and privileged and this dominance and privilege is invisible.


What is the patriarchy?

a near universal system that involves the subordination of femininity to masculinity. (E.g. social hierarchy)


What is male privilege?

Male privilege is a concept for examining social, economic, and political advantages or rights that are made available to men solely on the basis of their sex.


What is the difference between glass ceiling and glass elevator?

The glass ceiling is a barrier that women and/or minorities cannot pass.
The glass elevator refers to how men in female-dominated careers, often rise higher and faster than women in male-dominated fields.


What is pink-collar?

of or relating to a type of employment traditionally held by women, especially relatively low-paying work