Flashcards in Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations Deck (132)
The ____ resists both compression and tension stresses and acts as a resilient shock absorber.
Individual intervertebral discs allow only slight movements between the adjacent vertebrae; however, the collective movements of all the intervertebral discs afford the spine considerable _____.
freely mobile articulations
most of the commonly known in the body are ___ joints.
All synovial joints include several basic features; an articular capsule, a joint cavity, synovial fluid, ______, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.
Each synovial joint is composed of a _____ capsule called the articular capsule, or joint capsule.
The outer layer of the articular capsule is called the ____.
The inner layer of the articular capsule is called the _____.
synovial membrane or synovium
The fibrous layer is formed from _____ tissue.
The fibrous layer strengthens the joint to prevent the bones from being _____.
The synovial membrane is composed of ____ cells resting on an areolar connective tissue layer.
The ____ covers all the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and lines the articular capsule, and helps produce _____.
All articulating bone surfaces in a synovial joint are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage called _____.
The articular cartilage ____ friction in the joint during movement, acts as a ____ to absorb compression placed on the joint, and prevents damage to the articulating ___ of the bones.
The articular cartilage lacks a ____.
The repetitious compression and expansion that occurs during exercise is vital to maintaining healthy articular cartilage because this action enhances its obtaining _______.
nutrition and its waste removal.
Only ___ joints house a joint cavity or articular cavity.
a space that permits separation of the articulating bones.
joint cavity or articular cavity
The articular cartilage and ____ within the joint cavity together reduce friction as bones move at a synovial joint.
a viscous, oily substance located within a synovial joint.
Synovial fluid _____ the articular cartilage on the surface of articulating bones.
Synovial fluid ____ the articular cartilage's chondrocytes. The relatively small volume of synovial fluid must be circulated continually to provide nutrients and to remove wastes from these cells.
Synovial fluid acts as a ____, distributing stresses and force evenly across the articular surfaces when the pressure in the joint suddenly increases.
composed of dense regular connective tissue, and they connect one bone to another bone.
Ligaments function to stabilize, strengthen, and ____ most synovial joints.
______ ligaments that are outside of, and physically separate from, the joint capsule.
______ ligaments represent thickenings of the articular capsule itself.
Intrinsic ligaments include extracapsular ligaments outside the joint capsule and ____ ligaments within the joint capsule.
All synovial joints have numerous ____ and _____ that innervate and supply the articular capsule and associated ligaments.
sensory nerves and blood vessels