Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Skeletal System: Articulations Deck (132)
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61

The ____ resists both compression and tension stresses and acts as a resilient shock absorber.

fibrocartilage

62

Individual intervertebral discs allow only slight movements between the adjacent vertebrae; however, the collective movements of all the intervertebral discs afford the spine considerable _____.

flexibility

63

freely mobile articulations

synovial joints

64

most of the commonly known in the body are ___ joints.

synovial

65

All synovial joints include several basic features; an articular capsule, a joint cavity, synovial fluid, ______, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

articular cartilage

66

Each synovial joint is composed of a _____ capsule called the articular capsule, or joint capsule.

double-layered

67

The outer layer of the articular capsule is called the ____.

fibrous layer

68

The inner layer of the articular capsule is called the _____.

synovial membrane or synovium

69

The fibrous layer is formed from _____ tissue.

dense connective

70

The fibrous layer strengthens the joint to prevent the bones from being _____.

pulled apart

71

The synovial membrane is composed of ____ cells resting on an areolar connective tissue layer.

squamous epithelial

72

The ____ covers all the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and lines the articular capsule, and helps produce _____.

synovial membrane
synovial fluid

73

All articulating bone surfaces in a synovial joint are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage called _____.

articular cartilage

74

The articular cartilage ____ friction in the joint during movement, acts as a ____ to absorb compression placed on the joint, and prevents damage to the articulating ___ of the bones.

reduces
spongy cushion
ends

75

The articular cartilage lacks a ____.

perichondrium.

76

The repetitious compression and expansion that occurs during exercise is vital to maintaining healthy articular cartilage because this action enhances its obtaining _______.

nutrition and its waste removal.

77

Only ___ joints house a joint cavity or articular cavity.

synovial

78

a space that permits separation of the articulating bones.

joint cavity or articular cavity

79

The articular cartilage and ____ within the joint cavity together reduce friction as bones move at a synovial joint.

synovial fluid

80

a viscous, oily substance located within a synovial joint.

synovial fluid

81

Synovial fluid _____ the articular cartilage on the surface of articulating bones.

lubricates

82

Synovial fluid ____ the articular cartilage's chondrocytes. The relatively small volume of synovial fluid must be circulated continually to provide nutrients and to remove wastes from these cells.

nourishes

83

Synovial fluid acts as a ____, distributing stresses and force evenly across the articular surfaces when the pressure in the joint suddenly increases.

shock absorber

84

composed of dense regular connective tissue, and they connect one bone to another bone.

ligaments

85

Ligaments function to stabilize, strengthen, and ____ most synovial joints.

reinforce

86

______ ligaments that are outside of, and physically separate from, the joint capsule.

extrinsic

87

______ ligaments represent thickenings of the articular capsule itself.

intrinsic

88

Intrinsic ligaments include extracapsular ligaments outside the joint capsule and ____ ligaments within the joint capsule.

intracapsular

89

All synovial joints have numerous ____ and _____ that innervate and supply the articular capsule and associated ligaments.

sensory nerves and blood vessels

90

The sensory nerves detect ___ stimuli with in the joint and report the amount of movement and stretch within the joint.

painful