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Flashcards in Chapter Five Deck (65):
1

Tissues (define)

Groups of similar cells with a common function

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Histology (define)

The study of tissues

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Major Types of Tissues in the Body

Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue

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Epithelial Tissue (describe)

Covers organs and body surface
Lines cavities and hollow organs
Makes up glands

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Types of Epithelial Tissue

Simple squamous
Simple cuboidal
Simple columnar
Stratified squamous
Stratified cuboidal
Stratified columnar

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Simple Squamous (describe)

Single layer of thin, flat cells
Substances pass easily through
Thin & delicate, can be damaged. Found in diffusion & filtration sites
Lines air sacs (alveoli) & capillaries; lines blood & lymphatic vessels

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Simple Cuboidal (describe)

Single layer of cube-shaped cells
Secretion and absorption
Lines kidney tubules, thyroid follicles
Covers ovaries; lines ducts of some glands

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Stratified Squamous (describe)

Many cell layers; thick protective layer
Outermost cells are flat; deeper cells are cuboidal
New cells form, push older cells toward free surface
Outer layer of skin (keratinized); lines oral cavity, vagina, anal canal

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Stratified Cuboidal (describe)

2-3 layers of cube-shaped cells; more protection than 1 layer
Lines ducts of mammary, sweat and salivary glands, and pancreas

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Stratified Columnar (describe)

Top layer of elongated cells; cube-shaped cells in deeper layers
Lines part of male urethra, ducts of exocrine glands

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Transitional (uroepithelium) (describe):

Many cell layers; cube-shaped and elongated cells
Changes shape with increased tension; stretches
Line urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra

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Glandular Epithelium (describe):

Composed of cells that produce and secrete substances into ducts, blood or tissue fluids

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Types of Glandular Epithelium

Endocrine glands
Exocrine glands

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Endocrine Glands (describe)

Secrete into tissue fluid or blood

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Exocrine Glands (describe)

Secrete into ducts that open onto surface

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Types of Exocrine Glands

Unicellular
Multicellular

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Unicellular Exocrine Glands

Composed of one cell, such as a goblet cell (secretes mucus)

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Multicellular Exocrine Glands

Composed of many cells
Sweat glands, salivary glands, etc.

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Types of Glandular Secretion

Merocrine Glands
Apocrine Glands
Holocrine Glands

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Merocrine Glands (describe)

Secrete fluid products by exocytosis: salivary & sweat glands, pancreas

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Apocrine Glands (describe)

Lose small part of cell during secretion: mammary and ceruminous glands

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Holocrine Glands (describe)

Release entire cells filled with product: sebaceous glands

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Types of Intercellular Joints

Tight joints
Desmosomes
Gap joints

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Tight Joints (describe)

Membranes between cells merge and fuse
Located among cells that form linings, sheetlike layers
Blood-brain barrier

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Desmosomes (describe)

Form “spot welds” between cells
Structural reinforcement
Located among outer skin cells

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Gap Junctions (describe)

Tubular channels between cells
Molecules can move between cells
Located in cardiac muscle cells

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Connective Tissue (describe)

Most abundant tissue type. Extracellular matrix consists of protein fibers and ground substance; consistency varies from fluid to semisolid to solid

Cells are farther apart than epithelial cells; contain matrix between cells

Functions include: bind structures together, provide support and protection, serve as frameworks, fill spaces, store fat

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Major Cell Types of Connective Tissue

Fibroblasts
Macrophages (Histiocytes)
Mast Cells

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Fibroblasts (describe)

Most common fixed cell
Large star-shaped cell
Secrete fibers into extracellular matrix

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Macrophages (Histiocytes) (describe)

Usually attached to fibers, but can detach and wander
Conduct phagocytosis
Defend against infection

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Mast Cells (describe)

Large, fixed cells
Release heparin to prevent blood clotting
Release histamine, which causes inflammatory response

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Fibroblasts

Types of fibers in connective tissue

Collagen fibers
Elastic fibers
Reticular fibers

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Fibroblasts

Collagen Fibers (describe):

Thick threads of collagen, the body’s main structural protein
Great tensile strength and flexible, slightly elastic
Found in ligaments and tendons

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Fibroblasts

Elastic Fibers (describe):

Composed of elastin protein; branching
Can stretch and return to original shape
Not as strong as collagen fibers
Found in vocal cords, respiratory air passages

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Fibroblasts

Reticular Fibers (describe):

Thin, branching fibers of collagen
Form delicate, supporting networks
Found in spleen, liver

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Types of Connective Tissue

Loose
Dense
Specialized

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Types of Loose Connective Tissue

Areolar
Adipose
Reticular

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Types of Dense Connective Tissue

Dense Regular
Dense Irregular
Elastic

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Examples of Specialized Connective Tissue

Cartilage
Bone
Blood

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Loose Connective Tissue

Areolar Connective Tissue (describe)

Forms thin, delicate membranes
Cells are mainly fibroblasts
Gel-like ground substance; collagenous & elastic fibers
In subcutaneous layer; beneath most epithelia, where it nourishes nearby epithelial cells

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Loose Connective Tissue

Adipose Tissue (describe)

Adipocytes store fat
Push their nuclei to one side; crowd out other cell types
Cushions and insulates. Beneath skin (subcutaneous layer); behind eyeballs
Spaces between muscles; around kidneys and heart

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Loose Connective Tissue

Reticular Tissue (describe)

Composed of thin reticular fibers
Supports walls of internal organs; walls of liver, spleen

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Dense Connective Tissue

Dense Regular (describe)

Closely packed collagenous fibers; fine network of elastic fibers
Most cells are fibroblasts
Very strong, withstands pulling
Binds body parts together; tendons, ligaments, dermis
Poor blood supply; slow to heal

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Specialized Connective Tissue

Cartilage (describe)

A rigid, specialized connective tissue; support, framework, attachments
Protection of underlying tissue; models for developing bone
Matrix contains collagen in gel-like ground substance
Covered by perichondrium (connective tissue), which provides some nutrients to the cartilage
Lacks blood supply; heals slowly

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Types of Cartilage

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

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Fibrocartilage (describe)

Very tough, due to many collagenous fibers; shock absorber
Intervertebral discs; pads of knee and pelvic girdle

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Specialized Connective Tissue

Bone (describe)

Most rigid connective tissue
Solid matrix, composed of mineral (Ca) salts & collagen
Supports structures; protects vital structures
Produces blood cells
Attachment sites for muscles
Forms skeleton

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Types of Bone

Compact
Spongy

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Compact Bone (describe)

Osteoblasts deposit matrix in lamellae (layers)
Lamellae occur in rings around central canals
Osteocytes + matrix + central canal form cylindrical units called osteons
Osteons are cemented together to form compact bone
Central canals contain blood vessels; bone is well-nourished, heals more quickly than cartilage

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Specialized Connective Tissue

Blood (describe)

Cells suspended in fluid matrix called plasma
Red blood cells transport gases; white blood cells defend again infection
Platelets help in blood clotting
Transports substances around body

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Membranes (describe)

Membranes are sheets of cells

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Epithelial Membranes (describe)

Composed of epithelial and connective tissue; cover body surfaces and line cavities

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Types of Epithelial Membranes

Serous
Mucous
Cutaneous

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Epithelial Membrane

Serous Membranes (describe)

Line body cavities that do not open to outside of body (cover organs); inner linings of thorax and abdomen
Simple squamous epithelium + areolar connective tissue
Secrete serous fluid for lubrication, reducing friction

55

Epithelial Membrane

Mucous Membranes (describe)

Line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of body; lining of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
Epithelium + areolar connective tissue
Goblet cells secrete mucus

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Epithelial Membrane

Cutaneous Membranes (describe)

Covers body surface; commonly called skin
Part of integumentary system

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Epithelial Membrane

Synovial Membrane (describe)

Different from epithelial membranes
Composed entirely of connective tissue
Line joint cavities

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Muscle Tissue (describe)

Muscle cells are also called muscle fibers
Contractile; can shorten and thicken

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Types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth

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Skeletal Muscle Tissue (describe)

Attached to bones
Striated; voluntary
Multinucleated cells; long cylindrical cells
Stimulated by nerve cells

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Smooth Muscle Tissue (describe)

Walls of hollow organs; walls of blood vessels
Spindle-shaped fibers
Non-striated; involuntary

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Cardiac Muscle Tissue (describe)

Only in wall of heart
Branching cells; intercalated discs
Involuntary; striated

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Nervous Tissue (describe)

Found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Main cells are neurons

64

Neurons (describe)

Specialized for communication, via conduction of nerve impulses (sensory reception, motor control)
Neurons coordinate, integrate, and regulate body functions

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Neuroglia (describe)

Cells that support and nourish neurons