Final Review Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology I > Final Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Review Deck (43):
1

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

List:

Rectus Abdominis
External Oblique
Internal Oblique
Transverse Abdominis

2

Muscles that Move the Arm

List:

Levator Scapulae
Supraspinatus
Deltoid
Infraspinatus
Teres Major
Teres Minor
Triceps Brachii

3

Muscles that Move the Foot

List:

Patella
Patellar Tendon
Soleus
Gastrocnemius
Tibia
Anterior Tibialis

4

Muscles that Move the Forearm

List:

Clavicle
Brachialis
Biceps Brachii, short and long head
Coracobrachialis
Subscapularis
Trapezius
Deltoid
Medial Border of Scapula

5

Muscles that Move the Leg

List:

Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Maximus
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Biceps Femoris, long and short heads

6

Muscles that Move the Thigh

List:

Sartoris
Psoas Minor
Psoas Major
Rectus Femoris
Vastus Medialis
Vastus Intermedius

7

Muscles that Move the Thigh (cont'd)

List:

Tensor Fasciae Latae
Gluteus Minimis
Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Maximus
Piriformis

8

Muscles that Move the Foot (cont'd)

List:

Gastrocnemius
Plantaris
Soleus

9

Muscle group associated with the Brachial Plexus

List:

• Scalene muscles
o Posterior
o Medial
o Anterior

10

Main muscles that plantar flex the foot

List:

• Plantar flex
gastrocnemius
soleus
plantaris
flexor digitorum longes
tibialis posterior
fibularis longus

11

Main muscles that dorsi flex the foot

List:

• Dorsi flex
tibialis anterior
fibularis tertius
extensor digitorium longus

12

Smooth Muscle (examples)

o Intestines, stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels

13

Striated Muscle (examples)

o Skeletal muscle

14

Junctions in the blood-brain barrier

Describe:

o Membranes between cells merge and fuse
o Located among cells that form linings, sheetlike layers
o Blood-brain barrier

15

Mineral associated with muscle contraction

Describe:

• Na and K ions generate the muscle impulse (action potential)
• Impulse releases Ca which leads to muscle contraction

16

Proteins that make up the myofibril

Describe:

• Thin actin filaments
• Myosin protein; heads form crossbars
• Both thick and thin filaments consist of sarcomeres end-to-end

17

Thin Actin Filaments

Describe:

o Composed of actin protein; associated with troponin and tropomyosin, which prevent crossbridge formation when muscle is not contracting thick myosin filaments

18

Function of Acetylcholinesterase

Describe:

• (Enzyme) rapidly decomposes ACh remaining in the synapse

19

Myasthenia Gravis

Symptoms:

• Antibodies attack Acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibers (motor end plates) in neuromuscular junctions
• Person may have only 1/3 normal number of ACh receptors
• Leads to widespread muscle weakness and muscle fatigue

20

Muscles of the Rotator Cuff

Describe:

• Supraspinatus muscle
• Infraspinatus muscle
• Teres minor muscle
• Subscapularis muscle

21

Latissimus Dorsi

Origin:

Insertion:

Latissimus Dorsi

Origin: spines of sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic vertebrae, iliac crest, and lower limbs

Insertion: intertubercular sulcus of humerus

22

Trapezius

Origin:

Insertion:

Trapezius

Origin: occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous processes of seventh cervical and all thoracic vertabrea

Insertion: clavicle, spine, and acromion process of scapula

23

Biceps

Origin:

Insertion:

Biceps

Origin: coracoid process and tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula

Insertion: radial tuberosity of radius

24

Masseter

Origin:

Insertion:

Masseter

Origin: Zygomatic arch

Insertion: Lateral surface of ramus of mandible

25

Origin

Define:

• Less moveable end

26

Insertion

Define:

• More moveable end

27

Hypertrophy

Define:

• Enlargement of skeletal muscle that is exercised

28

Atrophy

Define:

• Decline or degeneration of muscle due to underuse or neglect

29

Slow Twitch

Example:

• Marathon runners
• Contract slowly and take a long time to fatigue making them ideal for high endurance/aerobic exercises, such as walking or running.

30

Fast Twitch, example

Example:

• Sprinters and weight lifters
• Contract quickly and fatigue quickly, making them ideal for short burst aerobic exercises, such as sprinting, hurdling and jumping

31

Histology

Define:

• The study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals; the study of tissues

32

Acetylcholine

Define:

• (ACh) is the neurotransmitter stimulus for contraction

33

Myoneural Junction

Describe:

• A type of synapse
• Also called a myoneural junction
• Site where an axon of motor neuron and skeletal muscle fiber interact
• Skeletal muscle fibers contract only when stimulated by a motor neuron

34

Parts of a Myoneural Junction:

Describe:

o Motor neuron
o Motor end plate
o Synaptic cleft
o Synaptic vesicles
o Neurotransmitters

35

Sarcomere

Describe:

• Basic unit of striated muscle tissue

36

Sarcoplasm

Describe:

• Cytoplasm of striated muscle cells

37

Sarcolemma

Describe:

• Cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell

38

Mediastinum

Describe:

• Mediastinum: region between lungs in thoracic cavity, which contains heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland

39

Synergists

Describe:

• Muscles that assist agonist / prime mover

40

Agonist

Describe:

• Muscle that causes an action

41

Antagonist

Describe:

• Muscles whose contraction causes movement in the opposite direction of the prime mover

42

Isotonic

Describe:

• Muscle contracts and changes length; equal force
o Concentric: shortening contraction
o Eccentric: lengthening contraction

43

Isometric

Describe:

• Muscle contracts but does not change length; change in force