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Flashcards in Chapter One Deck (68):
1

Anatomy (definition)

The study of the structure/morphology of the human body and its parts; derived from Greed for "a cutting up"

2

Physiology (definition)

The study of the functions of the human body and its parts; dervied from Greek for "relationship to nature"

3

Andreas Vesalius (ce 1514- 1564, d age 49)
(describe)

Considered the father of Human Anatomy. Authored one of the most influential books on human anatomy, "De humani corporis fabrica ("On the Fabric of the Human Body").

4

Structure of organs and parts of the body determines ...

... function

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Levels of Organization

Organism (describe):

Levels of Organization

Organism (describe):
Composed of organ systems interacting (human)

6

Levels of Organization

Organ (describe):

Levels of Organization

Organ (describe):
Group of different tissues with a function (heart, kidney, stomach)

7

Levels of Organization

Organ System (describe):

Levels of Organization

Organ System (describe):
Group of organs with common function (digestive system)

8

Levels of Organization

Tissue (describe):

Levels of Organization

Tissue (describe):
Layer or mass of cells with a specific function (adipose tissue)

9

Levels of Organization

Cell (describe):

Levels of Organization

Cell (describe):
Basic unit of structure and functions (muscle, nerve, or blood)

10

Levels of Organization

Organelle (describe):

Levels of Organization

Organelle (describe):
Functional part of a cell (mitochondrion, lyosome)

11

Levels of Organization

Macromolecule (describe):

Levels of Organization

Macromolecule (describe):
Large particles consisting of molecules (DNA, protein)

12

Levels of Organization

Molecule (describe):

Levels of Organization

Molecule (describe):
Particles consisting of atoms (water, glucose)

13

Levels of Organization

Atom (describe):

Levels of Organization

Atom (describe):
Tiny particles that make up chemicals (hydrogen, carbon)

14

Levels of Organization

Subatomic Particles (describe):

Levels of Organization

Subatomic Particles (describe):
Protons, neutrons, and electrons that make up cells

15

Ultrasound (US) (definition)

High-frequency sound waves that provide images of soft internal structures; used to obtain sonogram of fetus in uterus

16

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (definition)

Magnetic field changes alignment and spin of certain types of atoms; provides high-resolution images of internal structures, such as the brain

17

Characteristics of Life

List:

Characteristics of Life

List:
Movement
Responsiveness
Growth
Reproduction
Respiration
Digestion
Absorption
Circulation
Excretion

18

Metabolism (definition)

The events inside the body which obtain, release, and utilize energy (all chemical reactions in an organization that support life)

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Environmental Factors Required for Life

List:

Environmental Factors Required for Life

List:
Water
Food
Oxygen
Heat
Pressure

20

Homeostasis (definition)

Maintenance of a stable internal environment

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Homeostatic Mechanisms (definition):

Self-regulating systems that monitor aspect of the internal environment and correct them as needed

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Homeostatic Mechanism

Describe:

Homeostatic Mechanism

Describe:
Receptor
Control Center
Effector

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Homeostatic Mechanism

Receptor (definition):

Homeostatic Mechanism

Receptor (definition):
Detects and provides information about the stimuli

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Homeostatic Mechanism

Control Center (definition):

Homeostatic Mechanism

Control Center (definition):
Decision-maker that maintains the set point

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Homeostatic Mechanism

Effector (definition):

Homeostatic Mechanism

Effector (definition):
Muscle or gland that responds to the control center, and causes the necessary change in the internal environment

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Organization of the Human Body

Main Portions:

Organization of the Human Body

Main Portions:
Axial Portion
Appendicular Portion

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Organization of the Human Body

Axial Portion (describe):

Organization of the Human Body

Axial Portion (describe):
head, neck, and trunk

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Organization of the Human Body

Appendicular Portion (describe):

Organization of the Human Body

Appendicular Portion (describe):
Upper and lower limbs

29

Organization of the Human Body

Major cavities of the axial portion of the body:

Organization of the Human Body

Major cavities of the axial portion of the body:
Cranial Cavity
Vertebral Canal
Thoracic Cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity

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Organization of the Human Body

Cranial Cavity (describe):

Organization of the Human Body

Cranial Cavity (describe):
Houses brain

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Organization of the Human Body

Vertebral Cavity (describe):

Organization of the Human Body

Vertebral Cavity (describe):
Contains spinal cord

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Organization of the Human Body

Thoracic Cavity (describe):

Organization of the Human Body

Thoracic Cavity (describe):
Houses lungs and thoracic viscera

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Organization of the Human Body

Abdominopelvic Cavity (describe):

Organization of the Human Body

Abdominopelvic Cavity (describe):
Contains abdominal and pelvic viscera

34

Major Body Cavities

Diaphragm (describe):

Major Body Cavities

Diaphragm (describe):
Muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

35

Major Body Cavities

Mediastinum (describe):

Major Body Cavities

Mediastinum (describe):
Region between lungs in thoracic cavity, which contains heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland

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Major Body Cavities

Abdominopelvic Cavity (describe):

Major Body Cavities

Abdominopelvic Cavity (describe):
Cavity contains two portions
Abdominal cavity
Pelvic cavity

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Abdominopelvic Cavity (define):

Abdominopelvic Cavity (define):

Extends from diaphragm to top of pelvis, and contains stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, most of large intestine

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Pelvic Cavity (define):

Pelvic Cavity (define):

Enclosed by pelvic bones, and contians end of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

39

Small Cavities of the Head

List:

Small Cavities of the Head

List:
Oral cavity
Nasal cavity
Orbital cavity
Middle ear cavity

40

Serous Membranes

Layers:

Serous Membranes

Layers:
Visceral layer
Parietal layer

41

Serous Membranes

Visceral layer (describe):

Serous Membranes

Visceral layer (describe):
Inner layer, which covers the organ

42

Serous Membranes

Parietal layer (describe):

Serous Membranes

Parietal layer (describe):
outer layer, which lines wall cavity

43

Serous Membranes

Examples:

Serous Membranes

Examples:
Visceral and parietal pleura (around lungs in thorax)
Visceral and parietal pericardium (around heart in thorax)
Visceral and parietal peritoneum (around abdominopelvic organs)

44

Organ Systems

List:

Organ Systems

List:
Integumentary system
Skeletal system
Muscular system

45

Organ Systems

Integumentary System (describe):

Organ Systems

Integumentary System (describe):
Protection, body temperature regulation, sensory reception, production of Vitamin D

46

Organ Systems

Skeletal System (describe):

Organ Systems

Skeletal System (describe):
Framework, protection, attachment sites, storage or inorganic salts, production of blood cells, support of movement

47

Organ Systems

Muscular System (describe):

Organ Systems

Muscular System (describe):
Movement, main source of body heat, maintenance of posture

48

Organ Systems

Nervous and Endocrine System (describe):

Organ Systems

Nervous and Endocrine System (describe):
Integration and coordination of function through nerve impulses or hormones

49

Organ Systems

Cardiovascular System (describe):

Organ Systems

Cardiovascular System (describe):
Transportation of gases, nutrients, blood cells, and wastes

50

Organ Systems

Lymphatic System (describe):

Organ Systems

Lymphatic System (describe):
Transportation of fluids. lymphocyte production, body defense

51

Organ Systems

Digestive System (describe):

Organ Systems

Digestive System (describe):
Receives food, breaks down food, excretes waste

52

Organ Systems

Respiratory System (describe):

Organ Systems

Respiratory System (describe):
Exchange of gasses

53

Organ Systems

Urinary System (describe):

Organ Systems

Urinary System (describe):
Removes blood wastes, regulates electrolyte and water balance, blood pressure

54

Organ Systems

Reproductive System (describe):

Organ Systems

Reproductive System (describe):
Male and female systems produce and transport sex sales. Female also provides fetal development and childbirth

55

Anatomical Terminology

Anatomical Position (describe):

Anatomical Terminology

Anatomical Position (describe):
Anatomical terms of relative position are based on a person standing in anatomical position

56

Terms in Relative Position

Superior

Above

57

Terms in Relative Position

Inferior

Below

58

Terms in Relative Position

Anterior or Ventral

Toward the front

59

Terms in Relative Position

Posterior of Dorsal

Toward the back

60

Terms in Relative Position

Medial

Toward the midline

61

Terms in Relative Position

Lateral

Away from midline

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Terms in Relative Position

Bilateral

Paired structure

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Terms in Relative Position

Ipsilateral

Same side

64

Terms in Relative Position

Contralateral

Opposite sides

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Terms in Relative Position

Proximal

Close to point of attachment to trunk

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Terms in Relative Position

Distal

Farther from point of attachment to trunk

67

Terms in Relative Position

Superficial

Close to body surface

68

Terms in Relative Position

Deep

More internal