Chapter Seven (Part One) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Seven (Part One) Deck (35):
1

Bones (description)

Bones are the organs of the skeletal system and are composed of many tissues: bone tissue, cartilage, dense connective tissue, blood and nervous tissue

2

Bones (function)

Support and protect softer tissues
Provide points of attachment for muscles
House blood-producing cells
Store inorganic salts

3

Bones Vary Mostly in What Ways

Size
Shape

4

Bones Are Similar in What Ways

Structure
Development
Function

5

Bone Shape Classifications

Long Bones
Short Bones
Flat Bones
Irregular Bones

6

Long Bones (describe)

Long and narrow
Have expanded ends

7

Short Bones (describe)

Cubelike, length = width
Include sesamoid (round) bones, which are embedded in tendons

8

Flat Bones (describe)

Platelike, with broad surfaces

9

Irregular Bones (describe)

Variety of shapes
Most are connected to other bones

10

Parts of a Long Bone

Epiphysis

Expanded end

11

Parts of a Long Bone

Diaphysis:

Bone shaft

12

Parts of a Long Bone

Metaphysis:

Between diaphysis and epiphysis, widening part

13

Parts of a Long Bone

Articular Cartilage:

Covers epiphysis

14

Parts of a Long Bone

Periosteum:

Encloses bone; dense connective tissue

15

Parts of a Long Bone

Compact (cortical) Bone:

Wall of diaphysis

16

Parts of a Long Bone

Spongy (cancellous) Bone:

Makes up epiphyses

17

Parts of a Long Bone

Trabeculae

Branching bony plates, make up spongy bone

18

Parts of a Long Bone

Medullary Cavity

Hollow chamber in diaphysis; contains marrow

19

Parts of a Long Bone

Endosteum

Lines spaces, cavity

20

Parts of a Long Bone

Bone Marrow:

Red or yellow marrow, lines medullary cavity, spongy bone spaces

21

Osteocytes (define)

Mature bone cells

22

Lacunae (define)

Chambers occupied by osteocytes

23

Canaliculi (define)

Tiny passageways where steocytes exchange nutrients and wastes via cell processes

24

Extracellular Matrix of the Bone (describe)

Largely collagen fibers and inorganic salts:
Collagen gives bone resilience
Inorganic salts

25

Types of Internal Bone Structure

Compact bone
Spongy bone

26

Compact Bone (describe)

Consists of cylindrical units called osteons
Strong and solid
Weight-bearing
Resists compression

27

Spongy Bone (describe)

Consists of branching plates called trabeculae
Somewhat flexible
Nutrients diffuse through canaliculi

28

Lamellae (describe)

Layers of matrix around central canal

29

Bones form when...

Bone tissue replaces existing connective tissue as intramembranous bones or as endochondral bones

30

Intramembranous Bones (describe)

Originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissue
Broad, flat bones
Examples: Flat bones of the skull, clavicles, sternum, and some facial bones (mandible, maxilla, zygomatic)

31

Endochondral Bones (describe)

Begin as masses of hyaline cartilage
Most bones of the skeleton
Examples: Femur, humerus, radius, tibia, phalanges, vertebrae

32

Intramembranous Ossification (describe)

Process of replacing embryonic connective tissue to form intramembranous bone

33

Osteoblasts (describe)

Bone-forming cells that deposit bone matrix around
themselves

34

Endochondral Ossification

Process of replacing hyaline cartilage to form an endochondral bone

35

Chondrocytes (describe)

Cartilage cells