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Anatomy & Physiology I > Midterm Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (59):
1

Who is the founder of modern human anatomy?

Andreas Vesalius

2

What is the most abundant substance in the human body?

Water

3

What supplies raw materials for building living tissue?

Food

4

The diaphragm separates what cavities of the body?

Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavities

5

Where is the mediastinum?

Between the lungs in the thoracic cavity

6

In which quadrant is the liver located?

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

7

In which quadrant is the spleen located?

Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)

8

In which quadrant is the sigmoid colon located?

Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

9

In which quadrant is the appendix located?

Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

10

Name the three major parts of a cell.

Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane

11

What is in the nucleus of a cell?

The majority of the cells genetic material; DNA mostly

12

What is the role of mitochondria in a cell?

Perform cellular respiration; convert nutrients into energy

13

What is the role of Lysosomes in a cell?

To digest materials within a cell

14

What is the role of Peroxisomes in a cell?

To break down fatty acids and other molecules

15

What is the role of vesicles within a cell?

To break down food particles and get rid of unneeded cellular materials

16

What happens to a red blood cell (RBC) put into a hypertonic solution (a solution that is more solute than in the RBC)?

The red blood cell will lose water as water passes into the solution with more solutes

17

In active transport, what substance is required to move a substance across a membrane from a region of lower concentration to region of higher concentration?

ATP

18

What tissue covers organs and body surfaces?

Epithelial Tissue

19

Where do endocrine glands secrete?

Tissue fluid or blood

20

Where do exocrine glands secrete?

Ducts that open onto the surface

21

Sweat Glands
Endocrine or Exocrine

Exocrine

22

Thyroid Gland
Endocrine or Exocrine

Endocrine

23

In what part of the nervous system do we find tight junctions?

The blood-brain barrier

24

What is the most abundant tissue type in the body?

Connective tissue

25

What cells release heparin?

Mast

26

Is blood a connective tissue?

Yes. Blood is a specialized connective tissue.

27

Fibrocartilage can be found in what part of the spine?

In the intervertebral discs

28

Skeletal muscle is an example of what type of muscle structure?

Striated

29

What is the role of the Hypothalamus (in relation to the skin)?

The hypothalamus regulates body temperature based on nerve impulses that it receives from the skin.

30

How many bones are there in the adult human body?

206

31

How many vertebral segments are there in the cervical section?

7

32

How many vertebral segments are there in the lumbar section?

5

33

How many vertebral segments are there in the thoracic section?

12

34

What is the most mobile section of the vertebral column?

The cervical section

35

What structure passes through the intervertebral foramen (IVF)?

Spinal nerves

36

What structure is between the vertebral bodies?

Intervertebral discs

37

The coracoid is part of what bone?

The scapula

38

What is the fossa where the head of the humerus is located?

The Glenoid Fossa cavity

39

What is the fossa where the head of the femur is located?

The Acetabular Fossa

40

Anatomy (define)

The study of the structure/morphology of the
human body and its parts

41

Physiology (define)

The study of the functions of the human
body and its parts

42

Organelle (define)

Functional part of a cell (mitochondrion, lysosome)

43

Cell (define)

Basic unit of structure and functions (muscle, nerve, or blood cell)

44

Tissue (define)

Layer or mass of cells with specific function (adipose tissue)

45

Organ (define)

Group of different tissues with a function (heart, kidney, stomach)

46

Organ System (define)

Group of organs with common function (digestive system)

47

Metabolism (define)

All of the chemical reactions in an organism that support life

48

Homeostasis (define)

Maintenance of a stable internal environment

49

Differentiated (define)

Cells that have developed specialized characteristics

50

Selectively Permeable (define)

Regulated entry and exit of substances through passive or active transport

51

Diffusion (define)

Movement of atoms, molecules, or ions, from region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration

52

Osmosis (define)

Movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from region of higher water concentration to region of lower water concentration

53

Histology (define)

The study of tissues

54

Neurons (define)

Main cells of nervous tissue which are specialized for communication, via conduction of nerve impulses (sensory reception, motor control)

55

Melanocyte (define)

Cell in the stratum basle which produce the dark pigment melanin

56

Sebum (define)

Fatty material and cellular debris excreted by sebaceous glands in the skin

57

Osteoclasts (define)

A large bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing (breaks down calcified matrix)

58

Osteoblasts (define)

Bone-forming cells that deposit bone matrix around
themselves

59

Hematopoiesis

Blood cell formation